Friday, 3 July 2015

LANGANA-e English Parser Extremely Difficult Example Outputs

. The recovery of the cone membrane potential and the desensitization of
the cone that underlie light adaptation are mediated by a slow decrease in Ca2+ concentration in the cone outer segment during prolonged illumination (the
opposite changes occur during dark adaptation)
        0 .S the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT0       
        1 S recovery ||n.  SUBJECT1       
        2 S of ||prep.  SUBJECT2       
        3 S the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT3       
        4 S cone ||n.  SUBJECT4       
        5 S membrane ||n.  SUBJECT5       
        6 S potential ||n.  SUBJECT6       
0 6 the recovery of the cone membrane potential <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">FIX nPH AND/OR nPH at PARSEEEE
        7 S and ||+conj.  SUBJECT6       
        8 S the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT6       
        9 S desensitization ||n.  SUBJECT6       
        10 S of ||+prep.  SUBJECT6       
        11 SRN the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT6       
        12 S cone ||n.  SUBJECT6       
7 12 and the desensitization of the cone <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">13 S that ||+conj.  CONJUNCT CLAUSE THAT
               14 S underlie ||v. t.  VERB0
                    15 S light ||a.  OBJECT0                   
                    16 S adaptation ||n.  OBJECT1                   
15 16 light adaptation <-----object noun="" p="" phrase="">               17 S are ||+reg. v.  VERB0
               18 S mediated ||v. i.||imp. & p. p. Mediated||p. pr. & vb. n. Mediating||v. t.  VERB0
                    19 S by ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    20 S a ||+indef. art.                    
                    21 S slow ||a.                    
                    22 S decrease ||n.                    
19 22 by a slow decrease <-----preposition p="" phrase="">                    23 S in ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    24 S ca2+ ||n.                    
                    25 S concentration ||n.                    
23 25 in ca2+ concentration <-----preposition p="" phrase="">                    26 S in ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    27 S the ||+def. art.                    
                    28 S cone ||n.                    
                    29 S outer ||n.                    
                    30 S segment ||n.                    
26 30 in the cone outer segment <-----preposition p="" phrase="">                    31 S during ||prep. ---->FRAGMENT 0                   
                    32 S prolonged ||+reg. v.||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Prolonged||p. pr. & vb. n. Prolonging||v. i. ---->FRAGMENT 1                   
                    33 S illumination ||n. ---->FRAGMENT 2                                       
31 33 during prolonged illumination <-----fragment clause="" p="">        34 S( the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT0       
        35 SRN opposite ||a.  SUBJECT1       
        36 S changes ||n.||pl.  SUBJECT2       
34 36 the opposite changes <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">               37 S occur ||+reg. v.||v. i.||imp. & p. p. Occurred()||p. pr. & vb. n. Occurring  VERB0
                    38 S during ||prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    39 S dark ||a.                    
                    40 S adaptation ||n.                    
38 40 during dark adaptation <-----preposition p="" phrase="">
. If this illumination is maintained,
the cones slowly depolarize to a membrane potential between -70 and -40 mV (the resting potential), and are once again capable of hyperpolarizing in response to
further increases in light intensity?
0 .S if ||+conj.
        1 S this ||a.  SUBJECT0       
        2 S illumination ||n.  SUBJECT1       
1 2 this illumination <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">               3 S is ||+reg. v.||v. i.  VERB0
               4 S maintained ||+reg. v.||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Maintained||p. pr. & vb. n. Maintaining  VERB0
        5 ,SRN the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT0       
        6 S cones ||n.||pl.  SUBJECT1       
5 6 the cones <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">7 S slowly ||+adv. manner
               8 S depolarize ||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Depolarized||p. pr. & vb. n. Depolarizing  VERB0
                    9 S to ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    10 S a ||+indef. art.                    
                    11 S membrane ||n.                    
                    12 S potential ||n.                    
9 12 to a membrane potential <-----preposition p="" phrase="">                    13 S between ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    14 S -70 ||n.                    
13 14 between -70 <-----preposition p="" phrase="">FIX nPH AND/OR nPH at PARSEEEE
                    15 S and ||+conj.                    
                    16 S -40 ||n.                    
                    17 S mv ||n.                    
13 17 between -70 and -40 mv <-----preposition p="" phrase="">        18 S( the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT0       
        19 S resting ||a.  SUBJECT1       
        20 S potential ||n.  SUBJECT2       
18 20 the resting potential <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">21 ),S and ||+conj.  CONJUNCT CLAUSE AND
               22 S are ||+reg. v.  VERB0
23 S once ||+conj.
24 S again ||adv.
                    25 S capable ||a. ---->FRAGMENT 0                                       
                    26 S of ||+prep. ---->FRAGMENT 1                                       
                    27 S hyperpolarizing ||v. ---->FRAGMENT 2                   
25 27 capable of hyperpolarizing <-----fragment clause="" p="">                    28 S in ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    29 S response ||n.                    
28 29 in response <-----preposition p="" phrase="">30 S to ||to-inf.
                    31 SRN further ||a.                    
                    32 S increases ||n.||pl.                    
30 32 to further increases <-----preposition p="" phrase="">                    33 S in ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    34 S light ||n.                    
                    35 S intensity ||n.                    
33 35 in light intensity <-----preposition p="" phrase="">

. Detail of the retina at the fovea is shown on the
right (the diagram has been simplified by eliminating lateral connections mediated by interneurons; see Figure 26-6)
        0 .S detail ||n.  SUBJECT0       
        1 S of ||+prep.  SUBJECT1       
        2 S the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT2       
        3 S retina ||n.  SUBJECT3       
0 3 detail of the retina <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">                    4 S at ||prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    5 S the ||+def. art.                    
                    6 S fovea ||n.                    
4 6 at the fovea <-----preposition p="" phrase="">               7 S is ||+reg. v.||v. i.  VERB0
               8 S shown ||v. t.||imp.||p. p. Shown||p. pr. & vb. n. Showing||v. i.  VERB0
                    9 S on ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    10 S the ||+def. art.                    
                    11 SRN right ||n.                    
9 11 on the right <-----preposition p="" phrase="">        12 S( the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT0       
        13 S diagram ||n.  SUBJECT1       
12 13 the diagram <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">               14 S has ||v. t.||aux.  VERB0
               15 S been ||+irreg. v. participle  VERB0
               16 S simplified ||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Simplified||p. pr. & vb. n. Simplifying  VERB0
                    17 S by ||+prep. ---->FRAGMENT 0                   
                    18 S eliminating ||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Eliminated||p. pr. & vb. n. Eliminating ---->FRAGMENT 1                   
                    19 S lateral ||a. ---->FRAGMENT 2                                       
                    20 S connections ||n.||pl. ---->FRAGMENT 3                                       
17 20 by eliminating lateral connections <-----fragment clause="" p="">                    21 S mediated ||v. i.||imp. & p. p. Mediated||p. pr. & vb. n. Mediating||v. t. ---->FRAGMENT 0                   
                    22 S by ||+prep. ---->FRAGMENT 1                   
                    23 S interneurons ||n.||pl. ---->FRAGMENT 2                                       
21 23 mediated by interneurons <-----fragment clause="" p="">
               24 ;S see ||+irreg. v. neutral||v. t.||imp.||p. p. Seen||p. pr. & vb. n. Seeing||v. i.  VERB0
        25 S figure ||n.  SUBJECT0       
        26 S 26-6 ||n.  SUBJECT1       
25 26 figure 26-6 <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">
. To allow light to reach the photoreceptors without
being absorbed or greatly scattered (which would distort the visual image), the axons of neurons in the proximal layers of the retina are unmyelinated so that these
layers of cells are relatively transparent.

0 .S to ||to-inf.  INFINITIVE TO
1 S allow ||+reg. v.||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Allowed||p. pr. & vb. n. Allowing||v. i.  INFINITIVE VERB
                    2 S light ||n.                    
2 2 to allow light <-----infinitive p="" phrase="">3 S to ||to-inf.  INFINITIVE TO
4 S reach ||+reg. v.||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Reached||p. pr. & vb. n. Reaching  INFINITIVE VERB
                    5 S the ||+def. art.                    
                    6 S photoreceptors ||n.||pl.                    
5 6 to reach the photoreceptors <-----infinitive p="" phrase="">                    7 S without ||prep. ---->FRAGMENT 0                   
                    8 SRN being ||v. i.||p. pr. & vb. n. Being ---->FRAGMENT 1                   
                    9 S absorbed ||+reg. v.||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Absorbed||p. pr. & vb. n. Absorbing||v. i. ---->FRAGMENT 2                   
                    10 S or ||+conj. ---->FRAGMENT 3                   
                    11 S greatly ||+adv. manner ---->FRAGMENT 4                   
7 11 without being absorbed or greatly <-----fragment clause="" p="">                    12 S scattered ||+reg. v.||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Scattered||p. pr. & vb. n. Scattering||v. i. ---->FRAGMENT 0                   
12 12 scattered <-----fragment clause="" p="">        13 S( which ||+nom. pron.  SUBJECT0
               14 S would ||mod. past  VERB0
               15 S distort ||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Distorted||p. pr. & vb. n. Distorting  VERB0
                    16 S the ||+def. art.  OBJECT0                   
                    17 S visual ||a.  OBJECT1                   
                    18 S image ||n.  OBJECT2                   
16 18 the visual image <-----object noun="" p="" phrase=""> PUNCTUATION , CLAUSE WITH ARTICLE BEG
        19 ),S the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT0       
        20 S axons ||n.||pl.  SUBJECT1       
        21 S of ||prep.  SUBJECT2       
        22 S neurons ||n.||pl.  SUBJECT3       
19 22 the axons of neurons <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">                    23 S in ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    24 S the ||+def. art.                    
                    25 S proximal ||a.                    
                    26 S layers ||n.||pl.                    
                    27 S of ||+prep.                    
                    28 S the ||+def. art.                    
                    29 S retina ||n.                    
23 29 in the proximal layers of the retina <-----preposition p="" phrase="">               30 S are ||+reg. v.  VERB0
                    31 S unmyelinated ||n.  OBJECT0                   
31 31 unmyelinated <-----object noun="" p="" phrase="">32 S so ||+conj.
33 S that ||+conj.
        34 S these ||a.  SUBJECT0       
        35 SRN layers ||n.||pl.  SUBJECT1       
        36 S of ||+prep.  SUBJECT2       
        37 S cells ||n.||pl.  SUBJECT3       
34 37 these layers of cells <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">               38 S are ||+reg. v.  VERB0
39 S relatively ||adv.
40 S transparent ||adv.

.) This hyperpolarization of the horizontal cell reduces the amount of inhibitory transmitter released by the horizontal cell onto postsynaptic cones
in the receptive field center, and as a result these cones become depolarized (the opposite effect of light absorption by these cones)

        0 .)S this ||a.  SUBJECT0       
        1 S hyperpolarization ||n.  SUBJECT1       
        2 S of ||+prep.  SUBJECT2       
        3 S the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT3       
        4 S horizontal ||a.  SUBJECT4       
        5 S cell ||n.  SUBJECT5       
0 5 this hyperpolarization of the horizontal cell <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">               6 S reduces ||+reg. v.||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Reduced||p. pr. & vb. n. Reducing||present t.  VERB0
                    7 S the ||+def. art.  OBJECT0                   
                    8 S amount ||n.  OBJECT1                   
                    9 S of ||prep.  OBJECT2                   
                    10 S inhibitory ||a.  OBJECT3                   
                    11 S transmitter ||n.  OBJECT4                   
7 11 the amount of inhibitory transmitter <-----object noun="" p="" phrase="">                    12 S released ||+reg. v.||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Released||p. pr. & vb. n. Releasing ---->FRAGMENT 0                   
                    13 S by ||+prep. ---->FRAGMENT 1                   
                    14 S the ||+def. art. ---->FRAGMENT 2                                       
                    15 S horizontal ||a. ---->FRAGMENT 3                                       
                    16 S cell ||n. ---->FRAGMENT 4                                       
12 16 released by the horizontal cell <-----fragment clause="" p="">                    17 S onto ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    18 S postsynaptic ||a.                    
                    19 S cones ||n.||pl.                    
17 19 onto postsynaptic cones <-----preposition p="" phrase="">                    20 SRN in ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    21 S the ||+def. art.                    
                    22 S receptive ||a.                    
                    23 S field ||n.                    
                    24 S center ||n.                    
20 24 in the receptive field center <-----preposition p="" phrase="">25 ,S and ||+conj.  CONJUNCT CLAUSE AND
                    26 S as ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    27 S a ||+indef. art.                    
                    28 S result ||n.                    
26 28 as a result <-----preposition p="" phrase="">        29 S these ||a.  SUBJECT0       
        30 S cones ||n.||pl.  SUBJECT1       
29 30 these cones <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">               31 S become ||+irreg. v. neutral||+irreg. v. participle||v. i.||imp.||p. p. Become||p. pr. & vb. n. Becoming||v. t.  VERB0
                    32 S depolarized ||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Depolarized||p. pr. & vb. n. Depolarizing ---->FRAGMENT 0                   
32 32 depolarized <-----fragment clause="" p="">        33 S( the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT0       
        34 S opposite ||a.  SUBJECT1       
        35 S effect ||n.  SUBJECT2       
        36 S of ||+prep.  SUBJECT3       
        37 S light ||n.  SUBJECT4       
        38 S absorption ||n.  SUBJECT5       
33 38 the opposite effect of light absorption <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">                    39 S by ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    40 S these ||a.                    
                    41 S cones ||n.||pl.                    
39 41 by these cones <-----preposition p="" phrase="">
Different Classes of Bipolar Cells Have Excitatory Connections With Corresponding Classes of
Ganglion Cells
The receptive field properties of a ganglion cell largely reflect those of the bipolar cells connected to it, because each type of bipolar cell (on-center or off-center)
makes excitatory synaptic connections with the corresponding type of ganglion cell.

        0 ).RNRN different ||a.  SUBJECT0       
        1 S classes ||n.||pl.  SUBJECT1       
        2 S of ||+prep.  SUBJECT2       
        3 S bipolar ||a.  SUBJECT3       
        4 S cells ||n.||pl.  SUBJECT4       
0 4 different classes of bipolar cells <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">               5 S have ||+irreg. v. neutral||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Had||p. pr. & vb. n. Having  VERB0
                    6 S excitatory ||a.  OBJECT0                   
                    7 S connections ||n.||pl.  OBJECT1                   
6 7 excitatory connections <-----object noun="" p="" phrase="">                    8 S with ||+prep. ---->FRAGMENT 0                   
                    9 S corresponding ||v. i.||imp. & p. p. Corresponded||p. pr. & vb. n. Corresponding ---->FRAGMENT 1                   
                    10 S classes ||n.||pl. ---->FRAGMENT 2                                       
                    11 S of ||+prep. ---->FRAGMENT 3                                       
                    12 SRN ganglion ||n. ---->FRAGMENT 4                                       
                    13 S cells ||n.||pl. ---->FRAGMENT 5                                       
8 13 with corresponding classes of ganglion cells <-----fragment clause="" p="">
        14 RN; the ||+def. art.  SUBJECT0       
        15 S receptive ||a.  SUBJECT1       
        16 S field ||n.  SUBJECT2       
        17 S properties ||n.||pl.  SUBJECT3       
        18 S of ||+prep.  SUBJECT4       
        19 S a ||+indef. art.  SUBJECT5       
        20 S ganglion ||n.  SUBJECT6       
        21 S cell ||n.  SUBJECT7       
14 21 the receptive field properties of a ganglion cell <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">22 S largely ||adv.
               23 S reflect ||+reg. v.||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Reflected||p. pr. & vb. n. Reflecting||v. i.  VERB0
24 S those ||+obliq. pron.
25 S of ||+prep.
                    26 S the ||+def. art.                    
                    27 S bipolar ||a.                    
                    28 S cells ||n.||pl.                    
25 28 of the bipolar cells <-----preposition p="" phrase="">                    29 S connected ||+reg. v.||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Connected||p. pr. & vb. n. Connecting||v. i. ---->FRAGMENT 0                   
29 29 connected <-----fragment clause="" p="">30 S to ||+prep.
31 S it ||+obliq. pron.
32 ,S because ||+conj.  CONJUNCT CLAUSE BECAUSE
        33 S each ||a.  SUBJECT0       
        34 S type ||n.  SUBJECT1       
        35 S of ||+prep.  SUBJECT2       
        36 S bipolar ||a.  SUBJECT3       
        37 S cell ||n.  SUBJECT4       
33 37 each type of bipolar cell <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">        38 S( on-center ||n.  SUBJECT0       
38 38 on-center <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">FIX nPH AND/OR nPH at PARSEEEE
        39 S or ||+conj.  SUBJECT0       
        40 S off-center ||n.  SUBJECT0       
39 40 or off-center <-----subject noun="" p="" phrase="">               41 )SRN makes ||+irreg. v. neutral||v. t.||imp. & p. p. Made||p. pr. & vb. n. Making||v. i.||present t.  VERB0
                    42 S excitatory ||a.  OBJECT0                   
                    43 S synaptic ||a.  OBJECT1                   
                    44 S connections ||n.||pl.  OBJECT2                   
42 44 excitatory synaptic connections <-----object noun="" p="" phrase="">                    45 S with ||+prep.  PREPOSITION PHRASE BEGINNING
                    46 S the ||+def. art.                    
                    47 S corresponding ||a.                    
                    48 S type ||n.                    
                    49 S of ||+prep.                    
                    50 S ganglion ||n.                    
                    51 S cell ||n.                    
45 51 with the corresponding type of ganglion cell <-----preposition p="" phrase="">