Thursday, 10 March 2016

An Analysis of Correlative Conjunction Usage in the English Language

This is an analysis of approx. 400 correlative conjunction sentences from Kandel's Principles of Neural Science.  At the beginning of each item there is a simple example or two.  Then comes Kandel quotations accompanied with my structural analysis note. 

I intend to reduce these test cases to minimum linearly independent ones and proceed with the translation  software development.

Kind regards.

Ali R+
Note: A simpler document for Relative Clauses will follow shortly after this.

He may be tired from sleep, but he still needs to work.    coordinating conjunction
You either do your work or prepare for a trip to the office.    SUBJ either IMPERATIVE1 or IMPERATIVE2
-->Sen ya işini yap ya da ofise bir yolculuk için hazırlan.   SUBJ ya IMPERATIVE1 ya da IMPERATIVE2
--------------------------either as ADJ
changes the distribution of charges on either side of the membrane. either nPH
transmitting a depolarization signal equally well from either cell.  either nPH
surface of either one of the two fused digits       either nPH
 The rows of particles on either side of the active zone are either nPH either nPH nPH
 learned movements with either hand.  with either nPH
 ------------------------CONJ of nPH
this blocker may be either Mg2+ or various organic polyamines. either nPH or nPH
Neurotransmitters act either directly or indirectly on ion channels selective for either Na+ or K+? either nPH or nPH
can produce either excitation or inhibition. either nPH or nPH
however, either the G protein or the second messenger can act directly on an ion channel.   either by GERUND-PH that -SUBJECT-SENTENCE or by GERUND-PH from nPH
either nPH or nPH
producing either slow excitation or slow inhibition. either nPH or nPH
presenting visual stimuli to either the right or left visual field of split-brain subjects.  to either nPH or nPH nPH
That is, any given active zone releases either one quantum or none at all in response to a presynaptic action potential. either nPH or nPH prepPH prepPH
affects a postsynaptic cell, either a neuron or effector organ, such as a muscle cell or gland,
,either nPH or nPH, such as nPH
The most direct way is to compare either the amino acid sequences of the peptides or the nucleotide base sequences in the genes that encode them.
either nPH or nPH prepPH that -SUBJ-SENTENCE
-------------------------CONJ of ADJ
They can mediate either excitatory or inhibitory actions in postsynaptic cells   either ADJ or ADJ nPH
 On either side of the reversal potential that mediate either excitatory or inhibitory potentials either ADJ or ADJ nPH
The GABA and glycine receptor-channels contain either neutral or positively charged basic residues,  either ADJ or ADJ PARTICIPAL nPH
A single chemical transmitter can have either short-term or long-term effects on an ion channel.  either ADJ  or ADJ nPH prepPH
which may be either cytoplasmic or membrane-spanning either ADJ or GERUND
-------------------------CONJ of GERUND
 One important action of axo-axonic synapses is to control Ca2+ influx into the presynaptic terminals of the postsynaptic cell, either depressing or enhancing transmitter release.
, either GERUND or GERUND-PH
either by activating specific protein kinases that phosphorylate a variety of the cell's proteins or by mobilizing Ca2+ ions from intracellular either by GERUND-PH or by GERUND-PH
The diversity of some ?-subunits is increased either by alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA molecule or by the encoding of different variants of a basic ?-subunit type on different genes. either by ADJ GERUND nPH or nPH(incl. GERUND) prepPH
and still others with either an accelerating or decelerating train of action potentials. with either GERUND or GERUND nPH
-------------------------CONJ of prepPH
the conduction velocity of the action potential is enhanced either by myelination or by an increase in axon diameter, or by both. either by nPH or by nPH
These substances may act at synapses either as chemical messengers or as retrograde signals either as nPH or as nPH
Note that axodendritic synapses can occur on either the main shaft of a dendrite branch or on a specialized input zone, either on nPH or on nPH
Here we shall first discuss the short-term changes—changes in the amount of transmitter released due to either changes within the presynaptic terminal or extrinsic factors.
either nPH prepPH or nPH
represented on the screen either as a word or image.   either prepPH or nPH
are usually active against either of two peptide sequences  either prepPH
 These nuclei are located either on the midline of the thalamus (the midline nuclei) or within the internal medullary lamina (the intralaminar nuclei). either prepPH or prepPH
-------------------------CONJ of CLAUSE
which ...and either increase K+ permeability or inhibit voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. either -SUBJECT-SENTENCE or -SUBJECT-SENTENCE
which either activate second-messenger cascades or directly alter ion channel activity.   which either -SUBJECT-SENTENCE or -SUBJECT-SENTENCE
They often associate with either G protein-coupled or tyrosine kinase receptors either because it diffuses out of the synaptic cleft or is lost through hydrolysis
 Upon entry the axon forms branches that either terminate within the spinal gray matter or ascend to nuclei located at the junction of the spinal cord with the medulla
-------------------------CONJ of INFINITIVE
Receptor activation causes the cell either to depolarize or to hyperpolarize.  either to-INF or to-INF
 Current is passed in the postsynaptic motor neuron either to alter the level of the resting membrane potential prior to presynaptic stimulation (a method of membrane control called current clamping) or to keep the membrane potential fixed during the flow of synaptic current (voltage clamping).   either to-INF nPH prepPH or to-INF nPH prepPH
-------------------------CONJ of PARTICIPLE,ADV,VERB
peptides with either related or antagonistic functions can be generated from the same precursor.   either PARTICIPLE or ADJ nPH
The subject can identify an image either verbally or by touching objects hidden behind the screen   nPH either ADV or by GERUND-PH PARTICIPLE-PH
a tactile stimulation either excites or inhibits a cell.  nPH either VERB or VERB nPH
You must decide whether you stay or you go.       sentence1 whether sentence2 or sentence3
-->Kal veya git, karar vermek zorundasın.       sentence2 veya sentence3, sentence1
Whether you stay or you go, the film must start at 8 pm.    whether sentence1 or sentence2, sentence3    ???
-->Kal veya git, film saat 8'de başlamak zorundadır.     sentence1 veya sentence2, sentence3
to tell whether the object is round or square, hard or malleable? whether SENTENCE2
without addressing whether each of us sees the same blue. whether SENTENCE2
depends on whether the animal is paying attention to the stimulus whether SENTENCE2
to evaluate whether a stimulus is present. whether SENTENCE2
 regardless of whether the surface is smooth or rough. whether SENTENCE2
 determines whether we see a vertical or horizontal pattern. whether SENTENCE2
The subject is instructed to identify whether an item is present or not. whether SENTENCE2
 the monkeys indicated whether the gratings were vertical or horizontal whether SENTENCE2
 it is not certain whether their projections contribute significantly to the analysis of sound. whether SENTENCE2
 The fact that conscious experience is uniquely personal and intensely subjective raises the question of whether it is even
possible to determine objectively some common characteristics of consciousness in different individuals.whether SENTENCE2

to distinguish whether one tone was longer or shorter than another or whether the speed of one moving object was greater or less than another. whether SENTENCE2 or SENTENCE3

 Thus, the separation is not absolute, but whether there is an intermixing of the M and P contributions or whether the cross
 depending on whether the seizure is associated with tonic or clonic movements. whether SENTENCE2 or nPH
depends on whether the primary perturbation is to the feet or the head. whether SENTENCE2 or nPH
 it is not known whether each cell responds to one tastant or a combination of tastants. whether SENTENCE2 or nPH
Map of cutaneous innervation of the body differ depending on whether one is looking at the areas of skin innervated by nerve roots (center) or peripheral nerves (right and left).
whether SENTENCE2 or nPH
it is not known whether each cell responds to one tastant or a combination of tastants. whether SENTENCE2 or nPH
 The answer depends on whether individual parameters are specified in successive stages of processing or in parallel pathways.  whether SENTENCE2 or nPH
 The nervous system cannot determine from the response of a particular cone whether the cone is illuminated with a weak light at a wavelength to which it is sensitive
or a more intense light at a wavelength to which it is less sensitive    whether SENTENCE2 to whihc SENTENCE3 or nPH prepPH to which SENTENCE4
 to know whether the observed reduction in the hedonic value of reinforcers is due to anhedonia and lack of motivation or an inability to respond to the reinforcement.
whether SENTENCE2 or nPH to-INF prepPH

whether these periods are ancestral to mammalian sleep or simply species-specific forms of rest is not clear.  whether SENTENCE2 or nPH -SUBJ-SENTENCE1
A key question in the neurobiology of emotion is whether the somatic responses precede our cognitive awareness of an emotional state or follow from an “emotional idea” that is
largely cognitive.   whether SENTENCE2 or -SUBJ-SENTENCE3 that -SUBJ-SENTENCE4
premotor area is active whether the monkey performs a task or observes someone else perform the task. whether SENTENCE2 or -SUBJ-SENTENCE3
connections allow one cortical pathway to modulate activity in the other is not clear. ,but whether SENTENCE2 or SENTENCE3 -SUBJ-SENTENCE1
the cells' responses were enhanced whether the monkey made an eye movement to the visual target or reached for it. whether SENTENCE2 or -SUBJ-SENTENCE3
Richard Ivry and Steven Keele first sought to determine whether this defect results from a motor deficit or from a more fundamental defect in the timing of serial events.
 whether sentence2 or prepPH prepPH
 to determine whether the injury has occurred within the brain or further along the course of the nerve. whether SENTENCE2 or prepPH
  The answer depends on whether individual parameters are specified in successive stages of processing or in parallel pathways. whether SENTENCE2 or prepPH
whether he has been born colorblind, like Gregory's subjects, or become colorblind,  whether SENTENCE2, prepPH, or (has been) become nPH
An important question is whether or not the cortex analyzes color signals in isolation or in conjunction with signals about other image attributes.
whether or not SENTENCE2 or prepPh prepPH
a lemon seems yellow whether viewed in sunlight (which is whitish), under the light of a tungsten filament bulb (which is reddish), or by fluorescent (bluish) light.
whether (it is) SENTENCE2, prepPH, or by nPH
  It is not clear whether this sensory neglect is due to disruption of sensory systems or to  interference with motor systems directing responses contralateral to the lesion.        whether SENTENCE2 or prepPH prepPH GERUND-PH

to move things is all that mankind can do, for such the sole executant is muscle, whether in whispering a syllable or in felling a forest. in GERUND-PH or in GERUND-PH
to relearn the association between the background color and whether to push or pull. whether to-INF or -to-INF
depending on whether ipsilateral or contralateral nerves were stimulated. whether ADJ or ADJ
 Most deafness, whether mild or profound, falls into the category of  ,whether ADJ or ADJ,
 Thus, the representation of the body becomes related to the representation of visual space, whether actual, imagined, or remembered, whether ADJ, PARTICIPLE, or PARTICIPLE
 cervicospinal reflexes act synergistically to maintain body posture whether the head and trunk move together or independently. whether SENTENCE2 or ADV
 Excitation of a particular sensory neuron, whether naturally or artificially by direct electrical stimulation, elicits the same sensation. ,whether ADV or ADV by nPH,

depending on whether the hair cell is respectively depolarized or hyperpolarized from its resting potential. whether SENTENCE2 or PARTICIPIAL-PH
neurons discharges whether an object is grasped or bitten.  whether SENTENCE2 or PARTICIPLE
whether their eyes are open or closed. whether SENTENCE2 or PARTICIPLE
NOT ONLY            BUT ALSO
He is not only handsome, but also brilliant.  ---->O yalnız yakışıklı değil fakat aynı zamanda, parlaktır.
He has gone not only to Ankara, but also to Istanbul. ---->O yalnız Ankara'ya değil fakat aynı zamanda Istanbul'a gitmiş.
Not only is he handsome, but also he is brilliant. -->O yalnız yakışıklı değil fakat aynı zamanda, o parlaktır.
-----------------------------------Not only SENTENCE1, but SENTENCE2
Not only are reading and listening processed separately, but the act of thinking about a word's meaning activates a still
different area in the left frontal cortex.  Not only be-VERB GERUND and GERUND PASS-VERB ADV, but SENTENCE

-----------------------------------nPH not only -SUBJ-SENTENCE1, but -SUBJ-SENTENCE2
These differences not only have physiological importance for day-to-day functioning of the brain, but account for the fact that a disease may
affect one class of neurons but not others.  nPH not only -SUBJ-SENTENCE1, but -SUBJ-SENTENCE2
Aphasia patients not only manifest cognitive defects in language, but also have trouble with the affective aspects of language 
nPH not only -SUBJ-SENTENCE1, but also -SUBJ-SENTENCE2
Thus these channels not only have to depolarize the presynaptic cell above the threshold for an action potential, they must also generate sufficient ionic current to produce a
change in potential in the postsynaptic cell.
Golgi, who not only invented the silver chromate staining method so important to neurocytology but also used it so beautifully as shown here, shared the Nobel prize with
Ramón y Cajal in 1926.  PN, who not only VERB nPH so ADJ prepPHbut also VERB nomPRON so AV as PARTICIPLE aDVi VERB nPH prepPH
PN, who not only -SUBJ-SENTENCE but also -SUBJ-SENTENCE
-----------------------------------nPH VERB not only
is determined not only by the voltage across the membrane but also by the ionic concentration gradients.
VERB not only by prepPH but also prepPH
each species is determined not only by the concentrations of the ion inside and outside the cell but also by the ease with which the ion crosses the membrane.
VERB not only prepPH but also prepPH
differs from electrotonic potentials not only in the way in which it is generated but also in magnitude and duration.
VERB prepPH not only preppH which SENTENCE but also prepPH
Subtle differences in behavior can be achieved not only by the presence or absence of a given gene product or a set of products, , but also
by the degree to which different gene products are expressed, or by the specific contribution of gene products.
nPH VERB not only prepPH but also prepPH to which SENTENCE, or prepPH
Family, twin, and adoption studies indicate not only that patients who suffer from the major psychiatric disorders have a genetic predisposition to those disorders
but also that in the normal population at large components of character and general cognitive abilities have important genetic components.
nPH VERB not only that SENTENCE but also that prepPH SENTENCE2
-----------------------------------SENTENCE1 not only
The proper function of a protein is defined not only by its primary amino acid sequence, but also by its secondary and tertiary structure,
SENTENCE1 not only prepPH, but also prepPH
The proper function of these proteins depends not only on their primary amino acid sequence, but also on correct folding.
SENTENCE1 not only prepPH, but also prepPH
Since current is carried by ions, the conductance of a membrane will depend not only on the properties of the membrane but also on the concentration of ions in solution.
nPH VERB not only prepPH but also prepPH prepPH
Most of the actin molecule is highly conserved, not only in different cells of an animal but also in organisms as distantly related as humans and protozoa.
SENTENCE1, not only prepPH but also prepPH as ... as nPH
the transition from closed to open states appear to enhance ion conduction through the channel not only by creating a wider lumen, but also by shifting relatively
more polar amino acid constituents into the surface that lines the aqueous pore.
SENTENCE1 not only prepPH, but also GERUND-PH that -SUBJ-SENTENCE
-----------------------------------BE-VERB not only
Neurons in the neocortex are not only distributed in layers but also in columns that traverse the layers,  nPH prepPH BE-VERB not only PASS-VERB prepPH but also nPH that -SUBJ-SENTENCE
Knowledge of neuronal structure and the pathways of information flow in the brain is important not only for understanding the normal function of the brain but also for identifying specific regions that are disturbed during neurological illness.   nPH and nPH prepPH BE-VERB ADJ not only prepPH nPH but also for GERUND-PH that -SUBJ-SENTENCE
Similar interactions are important for exocytosis in all cells, not only in the synaptic terminals of neurons. nPH BE-VERB prepPH prepPH, not only prepPH
A third important difference is that metabotropic synaptic actions can not only increase channel opening, they can also decrease channel opening.   nPH BE-VERB that SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
-----------------------------------not only VERB
The thalamus not only projects to the visual areas of the neocortex but also receives a return projection from the neocortex.
nPH not only VERB prepPH but also VERB nPH prepPH
prefrontal neurons not only remember particular places within the visual field but do so in order to guide eye movements to those places.
nPH not only VERB nPH prepPH but VERB so in order to VERB nPG prepPH
Our perceptions not only appear whole for the instant of the experience, but they appear to be whole and continuous over time. nPH not only VERB nPH prepPH, butSENTENCE
M-type channels not only increases cell excitability by causing a depolarization, but also decreases the current necessary to depolarize a cell by a certain amount.
nPH not only VERB nPH prepPH, but also VERB nPH to-INF nPG prepPH
second messengers not only can modify preexisting proteins, but also can induce the synthesis of new proteins by altering gene expression.
nPH not only VERB GERUND nPH, but also -SUBJ-SENTENCE
Second-messenger actions not only open ion channels, as do the transmitter-gated receptors, but can also close channels that normally open in the absence of transmitter, producing decreases in membrane conductance.  nPH not only VERB nPH, as VERB nPH, but auxVERB also VERB nPH that ADV -SUBJ-SENTENECE, GERUND-PH
-----------------------------------VERB not only
The real resting membrane has open channels not only for Na+ and K+, but also for Cl-.  nPH VERB not only prepPH, but also prepPH
the distribution of specific types varies not only from cell to cell but also from region to region within a cell.  nPH VERB not only prepPH prepPH but also prepPHprepPHprepPH
 we must understand not only the properties of individual cells and pathways but also the network properties of functional circuits in the brain.
 nomPRON VERB not only nPH and nPH but also nPH prepPH
 This requires not only the methods and approaches of cellular and systems neuroscience but also the insights of cognitive psychology. 
 nomPRON VERB not only nPH and nPH and nPH but also nPH
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates not only existing tyrosine hydroxylase molecules, but also a transcriptional activator protein.
nPH VERB not only nPH, but also nPH
Such neural maps reflect not only the position of receptors but also their density,  nPH VERB not only nPH but also nPH
transmitters activate not only receptors in the postsynaptic cell but also autoreceptors,   nPH VERB not only nPH prepPH but also nPH
their activity signals not only the modality of the stimulus but also its position in space and its size.  nPH VERB not only nPH but also nPH prepPH and nPH
 Afferent neurons from extensor muscles excite not only the extensor motor neurons, but also inhibitory neurons that prevent the firing of the motor cells in the opposingflexor muscles.
nPH prepPH VERB not only nPH, but also nPH that -SUBJ-SENTENCE
These channels include not only many that are directly gated by transmitters, much like the nicotinic ACh receptor, but others that are gated indirectly by metabotropic receptors and the second messengers they activate.
nPH VERB not only nPH that PASS-SENTENCE, much like nPH, but nomPRON that -SUBJ-SENTENCE and SENTENCE
-----------------------------------not only prepPH but also  prepPH
perception is a constructive process that depends not only on the information inherent in a stimulus but also on the mental structure of the perceiver.
SENTENCE that VERB not only prepPH PARTICIPLE prepPH but also prepPH
The actions of the brain underlie not only relatively simple motor behaviors such as walking or eating, but all the complex cognitive
actions that we believe are quintessentially human,  nPH VERB not only ADV nPH such as GERUND OR GERuND, but nPH that SENTENCE
SENTENCE1 not only nPH, but nPH that SENTENCE
we need not only to determine which aspects of the activity are represented in which regions of the brain, but also how they are
represented and how such representations interact.  nomPRON not only to-INF which PASS-SENTENCE, but also how SENTENCE
NEITHER          NOR
Neither the basketball team nor the football team is doing well. 
---->Ne basket takımı ne de futbol takımı başarılıdır.
----------------------neither nPH nor nPH
Patients with lesions in both the amygdala and hippocampus showed neither autonomic conditioning nor knowledge of the testing situation. neither GERUND  nor nPH
The examination of the comatose patient is neither difficult nor time-consuming. nPH BE-VERB neither ADJ nor GERUND
If the stimulus is neither beneficial nor harmful, the animal learns, nPH BE-VERB neither ADJ nor ADJ, nPH VERB
when it moves neither sight nor hearing are still, in which neither Na+ nor K+ is in equilibrium when SENTENCE1 neither nPH nor GERUND BE-VERB ADJ
Some areas of the brain are neither purely sensory nor purely motor but instead are modulatory. nPH BE-VERB neither ADV ADJ nor ADV ADJ but instead BE-VERB ADJ
----------------------neither nPH
However, neither of these two aminergic pathways is essential for locomotion, However, neither of nPH BE-VERB prepPH
In simple recessive disease neither parent may have the disease but one in four children will. prepPH neither nPH VERB nPH but SENTENCE.
----------------------Neither nPH nor nPH
Neither the patients nor the control subjects could scale their response to the random displacement trials. Neither nPH nor nPH VERB nPH prepPH
----------------------Neither QUESTION nor SENTENCE
Neither has he studied English nor he has studied mathematics.  Neither aux-VERB nom-PRON VERB nPH nor SENTENCE2
----------------------neither -SUBJ-VERB nor -SUBJ-VERB
Affected patients can neither sense the motions of their joints nor detect objects touching their fingers. nPH aux-VERB neither VERB nPH nor VERB nPH GERUND-PH
Both the cross country team and the swimming team are doing well.
---->Hem kross takımı hem de yüzme takımı iyi durumdadır.
by activating different receptor subtypes: some excitatory, some inhibitory, some both.
Tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin both bind to Na+ channels with a very high affinity.
Both can be approximated by a short circuit— a conductor with zero resistance.
-----------------------------------Both nPH and nPH
Both the regular lamellar structure and biochemical composition of the myelin sheath are consequences of how myelin is formed from plasma membrane.
Both sensory and motor neurons were identified by injection
  Both types of motor neurons are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord Both nPH
---------------------------------- both nPH
and to relate both of these to an organism's behavior.  both of nPH
 Because these endfeet put the astrocyte into contact with both capillaries and neurons, two processes, both of which function as axons    both nPH,   both of which
Both long-range and local signals result from changes in the membrane potential  how do both of these signals differ from messages that send commands for voluntary movement? both of nPH
Both types carry out the important job of insulatingaxons, forming a myelin sheath by tightly winding their membranous processes around the axon in a spiral. both nPH
Children who lack both functional copies of the gene build up high blood levels of phenylalanine.
If a mutant phenotype is expressed only when both alleles of a gene are mutated (that is, only individuals homozygous for the mutant allele will exhibit the phenotype), the mutation or phenotypic trait is said to be recessive both nPH
The reason both alleles need to be defective in a recessive mutation in order for a phenotype to become evident is that  both nPH
 if present in both copies of a gene  both nPH
  rare mouse cells that grow in the presence of both drugs. both nPH
  these nearly always include both ends of the engineered DNA fragment. both nPH
  In each offspring the recombinant chromosome will carry a unique mix of genes from both original strains.  both nPH
Heredity and environment are both necessary for the expression of phenylketonuria. both ADJ
---------------------------------- both nPH and nPH
 Ultimately, these experiments will make it possible to study emotion, perception, learning, memory, and other cognitive processes on both a cellular and a molecular level.
 both nPH and nPH
  This information is then conveyed to a cortical association area specialized for both visual and auditory information,  a common neural representation shared by both speech and writing.  both nPH and nPH
 a representation of language by both auditory and visual inputs.  both nPH and nPH
 The reading of a single word produces a response both in the primary visual cortex and in the visual association cortex the same list of words was used in both the reading and listening tests.  both nPH and nPH
 the sensory neurons make both excitatory connections and connections through inhibitory interneurons. both nPH and nPH
 it increases both the speed and reliability of function within the central nervous system. both nPH and nPH
 most computational neurobiologists have turned to systems with both serial and parallel (distributed) components, both nPH and nPH
 These questions can be addressed by genetic studies in experimental animals in which both the gene and the environment are strictly controlled and by studies of human genetic mutations that give rise to diseases. both nPH and nPH
  In some transgenic animals of both species the DNA is inserted  in experimental animals in which both the gene and the environment are strictly controlled  both nPH and nPH
  A long-day per allele produces 28-hour cycles for both locomotor activity and eclosion,  both nPH and nPH
Both the phenotypic trait and the DNA sequence of the gene vary in the normal population. both nPH and nPH
genetic modeling studies indicate that both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder result from the effects of a small number of mutant genes. both nPH and nPH
 The housekeeping genes are highly conserved, in both number and structure, both nPH and nPH
 The information flow from sensory neurons to motor neurons is both divergent and convergent. both nPH and nPH
 The flux of K+ across the membrane is determined by both the K+ concentration gradient and the electrical potential across the membrane.  both nPH and nPH
 For an idealized spherical neuron with no processes, the input resistance depends on both the density of the resting ion channels in the membrane and the size of the cell.
 both nPH prepPH and nPH

Thus both visual and auditory pathways converge on Broca's area, the common site for the motor articulation of speech. both ADJ and ADJ
 Both genes are transcribed in the morning and their mRNAs accumulate, a balance governed by both psychological and physiological factors.  both ADJ and ADJ
Stubby spines containing postsynaptic densities (open arrow) are both small and rare in the mature hippocampus. both ADJ and ADJ
The axons of both central and peripheral neurons are insulated by a myelin sheath. both ADJ and ADJ
Even simple reflex activity requires coordination of inputs, both excitatory and inhibitory, to regulate specific motor units, and purposeful movements need still
more integration because of inputs from the brain. both ADJ and ADJ
manic-depressive disorder, are thought to represent a variety of disorders both etiologically and genetically. both ADV and ADV
The term multigenic includes both oligogenic and polygenic traits. both ADV and ADV nPH
----------------------------------- both -SUBJ-SENTENCE and -SUBJ-SENTENCE
 Throughout this book we both document the central principle that all behavior is an expression of neural activity and illustrate the insights into behavior that neural science provides.   both -SUBJ-SENTENCE and -SUBJ-SENTENCE
It is currently thought that ion channels are selective both because of specific chemical interactions and because of molecular sieving
based on pore diameter. both because of nPH and because of nPH
Football is as fast as hockey. ---->Futbol hokey kadar hızlıdır.
Football is as much an addiction as a sport. ---->Futbol spor olarak bir bağımlılık kadardır.

They imagined each region of the cerebral cortex as an independent mental organ dedicated to a complete and distinct mental function (much as the pancreas and the liver are independent digestive organs).  as nPH PARTICIPLE-PH

Thus, it is not useful to represent mental processes as a series of links in a chain, for in such an arrangement as nPH prepPH

As far as is known, glia are not directly involved In some cases, as at the nerve-muscle synapse of vertebrates, glial cells actively regulate the properties of the presynaptic terminal.  as ADJ as PASS-SENTENCE

neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. such as nPH
------------------------------- as nPH
but need not interfere permanently with the system as a whole. as nPH
The first of these has become known as the principle of dynamic polarization. as nPH
Unipolar cells have a single process, with different segments serving as receptive surfaces or releasing terminals.  as nPH
The CA3 cell dendrites are shown as thin lines and the axon collaterals as thicker lines.  as nPH
 The intervals between segments of myelin are known as the nodes of Ranvier. as nPH
 The point at which two neurons communicate is known as a synapse. as nPH
  Knowledge is not stored as complete representations but rather is subdivided into distinct categories and stored separately. as nPH
Representational categories such as “living people” can be subdivided even further.  such as nPH
hemispheres—was severed as a treatment for epilepsy as nPH prepPH
Certain neurons that carry sensory information, such as information about touch or stretch, to the spinal cord   as nPH prepPH
The branches of a single axon may form synapses with as many as 1000 other neurons.  as ADJ as NUM nPH
This conducting signal can travel at rates as fast as 100 meters per second.   as ADJ as NUM nPH prepPH
 When the hand is rubbed over a set of Braille dots, the Merkel disk receptors and Meissner's corpuscles fire bursts of action potentials as each dot in the pattern crosses their receptive fields and are silent as the smooth regions between dots pass. as nPH prepPH             as nPH prepPH VERB
which suggests that it may serve as the major antigen presenting cell in the central nervous system. as ADJ GERUND nPH prepPH
The better, more realistic metaphor is to think of mental processes as several railroad lines that all feed into the same terminal. as nPH that SENTENCE
 we store each piece of our knowledge of the world as a single representation that can be recalled by memory-jogging stimuli as nPH that -SUBJ-SENTENCE

  As a result, identical twins share all genes;

 --------------------------------as nPH as nPH
  the subject is shown three moveable colored balls in an initial position and asked to move them to specified positions with as few movements as possible.
 as nPH as nPH
 we see a white shirt as white and a red tie as red.   as nPH and nPH as nPH
 The analogy also fails to reflect the cognitive function of the visual system, such as our ability to perceive an object as the same under strikingly different visual conditions, conditions that cause the image on the retina to vary widely. such as nPH to-INF nPH as nPH prepPH,
------------------------------- as ADJ as NUM
particles in living axons in culture started as early as 1920. as ADJ as NUM
 with rates perhaps as high as 1 in 500 base pairs, as ADJ as NUM nPH
micro-tubule can be as long as 0.1 mm. as ADJ as NUM nPH
The faster component of slow axonal transport is about twice as fast as the slower component. as ADJ as nPH
------------------------------- as ADV as nPH
but also in organisms as distantly related as humans and protozoa.  as ADV PARTICIPLE as nPH
The A-type K+ channel is activated rapidly by depolarization, almost as rapidly as the Na+ channel; as ADV as nPH
they are as alike genetically as is possible for two individuals. as ADV ADV as is ADJ prepPH
------------------------------- as ADJ as ADJ
It is advantageous to respond as rapidly as possible,  as ADJ as ADJ
Neurons can be classified as unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar according to the number of processes that originate from the cell body.  as ADJ, ADJ, or ADJ 
behavior have not been as precisely mapped as sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, as ADV GERUND as ADJ,ADJ,ADJ nPH
 For behaviorists, unobservable mental processes, especially anything as abstract as conscious awareness,  was simply deemed inaccessible to scientific study. as ADJ as ADJ nPH,
 Experimental subjects were instructed to think without vocalization of as many verbs as possible that would correspond to a noun presented to them.
as ADJ as ADJ
------------------------------- As sentence
As we shall learn below and in Chapter 7, As SENTENCE
The sheath assumes its form as the inner tongue of the Schwann cell turns around the axon  as SENTENCE
As a result, damage to a single area need not result in the loss of an entire faculty as many earlier neurologists predicted. as SENTENCE
it may partially return as undamaged parts of the brain reorganize their linkages.  as SENTENCE

A simple electrodiffusion model would predict that the ionic current should continue to increase as long as the ionic concentration also increases:  as ADJ as SENTENCE
 But as soon as one microelectrode is inserted into the cell the oscilloscope shows a steady voltage, But as ADJ as SENTENCE
 A signal sequence in the nascent polypeptide induces the attachment of the ribosomes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum as soon as this portion of the nascent polypeptide chain starts protruding from the ribosomes.  as ADJ as SENTENCE
 But as soon as he entered, he found the mental image of a tomato was as black as its appearance But as ADJ as SENTENCE,
 they see one column of objects as concave and the other as convex  action potentials and, as far as we know, are confounded in the discharge of a single cell.
as ADJ and other as ADJ nPH and, as ADJ as SENTENCE,
In addition, this local-circuit current does not spread as far as it normally would  as ADJ as SENTENCE-VERB
Just as many Americans love basketball, so many Canadians love ice hockey.
------------------------------------- Just as SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Just as grief is a normal response to personal loss, anxiety is a normal response to threatening situations. Just as SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Just as there are distinct modalities of sensation, there are three distinct categories Just AS SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Even though a materialist, McGinn believes that the human mind lacks the cognitive ability to understand the nature of consciousness, just as monkeys cannot understand particle physics. Just as SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Thus, at the peak of the action potential the membrane potential approaches the Na+ equilibrium potential, just as at rest (when permeability to K+ is predominant) the membrane potential tends to approach the K+ equilibrium potential. Just as SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Just as a public address system howls when its gain is excessive, the ear emits sound when the cochlear amplifier is overly active. 
Just as the caudate nucleus is separated from the putamen by the internal capsule, the internal pallidal segment is separated from the substantia nigra.
Just as the spinal nerves subserve specific sensory or motor functions related to their segmental level, the cranial nerves subserve specific functions for the head, neck, and internal viscera. Just as SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Just as one cannot predict the sex of a mammalian embryo from the structure of the indifferent gonads, one cannot determine the sex of an animal from the
precursors of the internal reproductive organs. Just as SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Just as our perceptual skills reflect the capabilities of the sensory systems to detect, analyze, and estimate the significance of
physical stimuli, our motor agility and dexterity reflect the capabilities of the motor systems to plan, coordinate, and execute
 Nevertheless, just as psychophysical analysis of sensory processing tells us about the capabilities and limitations of the sensory systems, psychophysical analysis of motor performance provides    Nevertheless, just as SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Thus, just as there is a hierarchy of spinal and supraspinal motor control, there is a hierarchy of neuronal repre-sentations of task features within the different cortical areas.Thus, just as SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
------------------------------------- SENTENCE1, just as SENTENCE2
We shall learn how motor psychophysical studies of movement describe the relationships between intended actions and performance, just as sensory
psychophysical studies relate physical stimuli to sensory experience in a quantitative way . SENTENCE1, just as SENTENCE2
Furthermore, the brain can take even the limited store of remaining information and construct a good representation of the original, just as the
brain normally constructs conscious memory. SENTENCE1, just as SENTENCE2
------------------------------------- Just as SENTENCE1, so -SUBJ-SENTENCE
Just as the cranial nerves are homologous to spinal nerves, so are the sensory and motor nuclei within the brain stem similar to those of the spinal cord.
Just as healthy people who are excessively sleepy because of insufficient sleep can increase their daytime alertness by increasing the amount of sleep over one or two weeks, so too can people with parasomnias lessen the frequency of confusion arousals by getting more sleep each night.
Just as the development of the brain's sensory apparatus depends on sensory experience at certain critical
stages, so too does development of social behavior depend on social experience at specific periods of neural development. Just as SENTENCE1, so -SUBJ-SENTENCE
------------------------------------- Just as SENTENCE1, so SENTENCE2
Just as schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease and perhaps affects more than one set of dopaminergic pathways in the brain (mesolimbic and
mesocortical), so it is likely that antipsychotic drugs act on more than one molecular target. Just as SENTENCE1, so SENTENCE2
------------------------------------- SENTENCE1 just as if SENTENCE2
It slowed and its beat diminished just as if its vagus had been stimulated. SENTENCE1 just as if SENTENCE2
The more you practice writing, the better you will be at it.
----> Yazmayı ne kadar çok çalışırsanız, siz onda o kadar iyi olursunuz.
The more the receptor potential exceeds threshold, the greater the depolarization and consequently the greater the frequency of action potentials in the axon;
 variety of cell types in the brain as compared to cells in the more homogenous body tissues. The more SENTENCE1, the greater nPH and ADV ADV nph prepPH
 ionic concentration also increases: the more charge carriers in solution, the greater the current flow. ,the more nPH prepPH, the greater nPH

 The smaller an ion, the more highly localized is its charge and the stronger its electric field;
 The smaller nPH, the more PARTICIPAL BE-VERB nPH and the stronger nPH

The more the membrane potential is depolarized and moves away from the K+ equilibrium potential, the greater is the electrochemical force driving K+ out
of the cell and consequently the greater is the K+ efflux. The more SENTENCE1 and -SUBJ-SENTENCE2, the greater BE-VERB nPH GERUND-PH prepPH ...
For example, the further the eye moves laterally, the more abducens neurons discharge, causing more lateral rectus muscle fibers to contract.
ADV, the further SENTENCE, the more SENTENCE2, GERUND-PH to-INF
----------------------the more nPH, the more SENTENCE
 The larger the area of a capacitor, the more charge it will store for a given potential difference. The larger nPH, the more nPH SENTENCE.
Similarly, the larger the membrane capacitance, the more charge must be deposited on the membrane to change the potential across the membrane
ADV, the larger nPH, the more SENTENCE
The more effective the substitution, the more readily ions can traverse the Na+ channel. The more ADJ nPH, the more ADV SENTENCE
The more K+ continues to flow, the more charge will be separated and the greater will be the potential difference. The more SENTENCE1, the more SENTENCE2 and the greater -SUBJ-SENTENCE3
In this case of conjunctive search, the more items present, the longer the search takes (C). the more nPH ADJ, the longer SENTENCE
-------------------------- more nPH
 The more prominent gyri and sulci are quite similar in everyone and have specific names.   The more nPH
In the more mundane situation, epilepsy often develops after a discrete cortical injury such as a penetrating head wound.  more nPH
Medication can be considered in the more severe cases.  more nPH
Neurons here inhibit the movement-related neurons in the more caudal parts of the colliculus more nPH
The more distant the object, the smaller the eye movement. more nPH
Even with the more stable four-legged animals successful postural control is no mean achievement.more nPH
Finally, mutual excitation is an important mechanism for establishing the more or less synchronous firing of a group  and other information to produce the more elaborate voluntary movements that require planning.   more or less ADJ GERUND nPH
Therefore, we shall also consider the more general issue of how rhythmic motor activity can be generated and sustained by networks of neurons.more nPH
The deletions leading to the more severe phenotypes (above) were found in both patients more nPH
In general, the more severe forms of Becker muscular dystrophy are associated with mutations at either end of the dystrophin gene more nPH
The more numerous dark spots are the inner segments of the L and M cones, also arranged quasi-regularly. more nPH
 neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex are fairly evenly distributed—connections from the more numerous neurons in the fovea are distributed over a wide area. more nPH
Second, the term can refer to the more complex and conceptual case of the cortical representation of the space surrounding the body. more nPH
The more posterior cortical areas receive sensory information at longer latencies, processing stimuli presented 30-100 ms earlier. more nPH
This question, which we shall address in this and the next four chapters, is all the more intriguing because information about form, motion, and color is carried not by a single hierarchical pathway, but by at least two (and possibly more) parallel and interacting pathways in the brain. more nPH
First, it minimizes the development of fatigue by allowing the most fatigue-resistant muscle fibers to be used most of the time, holding the more fatigable fibers in reserve until needed to achieve higher forces. more nPH
Synaptic current generated at an axosomatic site has a stronger signal and therefore a greater influence on the outcome at the trigger zone than does current from the more remote axodendritic contacts  more nPH

No sooner did she learn to ski, than the snow began to thaw.
---->O kayak kaymayı öğrenir öğrenmez, kar erimeye başladı.

 No sooner had the warm liquid mixed with the crumbs touched my palate than a shudder ran through me and I stopped,
 No sooner aux-VERB nPH prepPH Verb nPH than SENTENCE
•{ADV} tercihen, iyisimi, daha iyisi, daha doğrusu, oldukça, bayağı, az çok, aksine [Brit.], bilâkis [Brit.]
I would rather swim than surf.           SUBJ would rather VERB than VERB
----> Sörften ise yüzmeyi tercih ederim.       nounofVERB ise nounofVERB-i tercih ederim.
I would rather go there than stay here.
---->Burada kalmaktansa oraya gitmeyi tercih ederim.
------------------------------ rather - SENTENCE affiliated
 Rather, they surround the cell bodies, axons, and dendrites of neurons.  Rather, SENTENCE.
 Rather, it increases the probability that a vesicle will discharge its transmitter. Rather, SENTENCE
 Rather, action potentials generated in the dendrites propagate electrotonically to the cell body and axon hillock, where they are integrated with all other input signals in the cell. Rather, SENTENCE1, where SENTENCE2
Rather than looking within the brain, Gall sought to establish an anatomical basis  Rather than SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
 These observations illustrate that alterations in external Ca2+ concentration do not affect the size of a quantum of transmitter (the number of ACh molecules) but rather affect the average number of quanta that are released in response to a presynaptic action potential. SENTENCE1 but rather SENTENCE2

Rather than having different proteins as regulatory and catalytic elements, each enzyme contains regulatory and catalytic domains in a single continuous polypeptide chain. Rather than GERUND-PH, SENTENCE2
 In it he described another type of aphasia, one involving a failure to comprehend language rather than to speak (a receptive as opposed to an expressive malfunction). SENTENCE1, appositive rather than to-INF
--------------------------------- SENTENCE1 but rather -SUBJ-SENTENCE
Knowledge is not stored as complete representations but rather is subdivided into distinct categories and stored separately.
His studies indicate that the M2 helix is not straight but rather has a bend or kink in its middle SENTENCE1 but rather -SUBJ-SENTENCE
They therefore do not mediate rapid behaviors but rather serve to modulate the strength and efficacy of fast synaptic transmission—by modulating transmitter release SENTENCE1 but rather -SUBJ-SENTENCE2
 They do not move about freely in the terminal but rather are restrained or anchored to a network SENTENCE1 but rather -SUBJ-SENTENCE

-------------------------------------Rather, SENTENCE
But, as far as we know, no complex human behavior is initiated by a single neuron. Rather, each behavior is generated by the actions of many cells.
 Although true endosomes exist in nerve terminals, they do not seem to play a role in synaptic vesicle recycling; rather, recycled synaptic vesicles are generated directly from clathrin-coated vesicles that lose their coat. ; rather, SENTENCE
 The second principle, the principle of connectional specificity, states that nerve cells do not connect indiscriminately with one another to form random networks; rather each cell makes specific connections—at particular contact points—with certain postsynaptic target cells but not with others.
;rather SENTENCE
------------------------------------- rather than nPH
To identify a clone in which the mutated gene has been integrated into the homologous (normal) site, rather than some other random site, DNA samples of each clone are tested.  SENTENCE1, rather than nPH, SENTENCE2
Since both duplicated genes are active, the disease results from increased production of PMP22 (a two- to three-fold increase in gene dosage) rather than from a
reduction in a mutant protein.  SENTENCE1 rather than prepPH
 He argued that phrenology, the attempt to localize the functions of the mind, should be based on examining damage to the brain produced by clinical lesions rather than by examining the distribution of bumps on the outside of the head. SENTENCE1 rather than by GERUND-PH prepPH
We therefore can construct a model of a channel that selects K+ rather than Na+ simply on the basis of the interaction of the two ions with water in a water-filled channel SENTENCE1 rather than nPH ADV prepPH prepPH prepPH
Unlike spoken language, American signing is accomplished with hand gestures rather than by sound and is perceived by visual rather than auditory pathways.
Unlike nPH, SENTENCE1 rather than by nPH and -SUBJ-SENTENCE
------------------------------------------ rather nPH
The net effect of the mixed permeability of these rather nonselective channels, rather nPH
In the brain, electrical synaptic transmission is rapid and rather stereotyped. rather PARTICIPAL
indicating that the neuron's tuning is rather broad. rather ADJ
They tend to have rather long processes, some of which terminate in end-feet.  rather ADJ nPH
If only one K+ ion were in the channel the ion would be bound rather tightly, rather ADV
These affective aspects are represented in the right hemisphere and, rather strikingly, the neural organization of the affective elements of language mirrors the organization of the logical content of language in the left hemisphere.  rather ADV
 Thus, at the resting membrane potential the cell is not in equilibrium but rather in a steady state: but rather prepPH
They soon realized that although these serial models solved many problems rather well, including the challenge of playing chess, they performed poorly with other computations that the brain does almost instantaneously, such as recognizing faces or comprehending speech. rather ADJ
 it is continuous and low level rather than synchronous and concentrated,  SENTENCE rather than ADJ and PARTICIPAL
Thus, what makes the brain a remarkable information processing machine is not the complexity of its neurons, but rather its many elements and, in particular, the complexity of connections between them. ,but rather nPH and, prepPH, nPH
The direction and eventual equilibrium for this flux is determined not by the channel itself, but rather by the electrostatic and diffusional driving forces across the membrane. SENTENCE1, but rather prepPH
postsynaptic cell does not depend on the chemical properties of the transmitter but rather on the properties of the receptors that recognize and bind the transmitter. SENTENCE1 but rather prepPH that -SUBJ-SENTENCE2
To be precise, chemical activities should be used rather than concentrations. rather than nPH
The causative factor is therefore in the plasma, rather than a function of the lymphocytes themselves. SENTENCE1, rather than nPH
A transcellular modulator of the presynaptic terminal is now called a retrograde messenger rather than a second messenger. SENTENCE1 rather than nPH
Transport is achieved by transporters, large membrane-spanning proteins that carry a molecule across the membrane rather than allowing it to pass through a pore, as in ion channels. SENTENCE1, rather than GERUND-PH prepPH, as prepPH
----------------------- as well as nPH
Men ought to know that from the brain, and from the brain only, arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, griefs and tears.
nPH, as well as nPH
 an appreciation of subtleties of language, such as irony, metaphor, and wit, as well as the emotional content of speech. nPH, as well as nPH
diseases including multiple sclerosis and AIDS-related dementia, as well as various chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. nPH, as well as nPH
 which stores the genes of the cell, as well as the endoplasmic reticulum, more diseases (psychiatric as well as neurological) than any other organ of the body.
nPH, as well as nPH
to all cells in an organism as well as succeeding generations of organisms. nPH as well as nPH
 Benign mutations are allelic polymorphisms that produce differences in body type, such as eye color or hair color, as well as differences in personality
characteristics. nPH, as well as nPH
where they inhibit the transcription of their own genes as well as other, nPH as well as nPH
However, most behavioral traits as well as most common genetic disorders are multigenic; nPH as well as nPH
 The heritability of bipolar affective disorder, as well as that of schizophrenia, has been estimated to be about 50-60% nPH as well as nPH
 known, in humans as well as in other mammals nPH as well as nPH
 The proteins carried by this component are more complex, and include clathrin, actin, and actin-binding proteins as well as a variety of cytosolic enzymes and
proteins. nPH as well as nPH
 Proteins of mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as proteins of the nucleus and some proteins of the vacuolar apparatus, are made in the cytosol
 nPH as well as nPH
leading to the activation of various enzymes and other proteins, as well as release of neurotransmitter nPH, as well as nPH
 Equivalent circuits provide us with an intuitive understanding as well as a quantitative description of how current flow due to the movement of ions generates signals in nerve cells. nPH as well as nPH of how SENTENCE
 the M2 helix may be important for channel gating, as well as for ion permeation. for nPH as well as for nPH
  microelectrode analysis of miniature end-plate amplitude and frequency as well as end-plate current and quantal release of transmitter, early relay nuclei involved in taste, hearing, and maintenance of balance as well as the control of neck and facial muscles. nPH as well as nPH
 It has been divided into at least three subdivisions and is extensively interconnected with widespread regions of the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, as well as with the superior colliculus and other nuclei of the brain stem related to vision.
nPH, as well as nPH
The major primary and higher-order sensory and motor cortical areas as well as the multimodal association areas of the cerebral cortex are listed
nPH as well as nPH

 ----------------------------- prep nPH as well as prep nPH
 This area is conveniently surrounded by the auditory cortex as well as by areas collectively known as association cortex
 by nPH as well as by nPH
 The modulator is able to cross over to neighboring postsynaptic spines as well as to presynaptic terminals where it can produce second messenger-like effects.
to nPH as well as to nPH where SENTENCE
A. Synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals are sequestered in a storage compartment where they are tethered to the cytoskeleton, as well as in a releasable
compartment where they are docked to the pre- synaptic membrane. in nPH where SENTENCE, as well as in nPH where SENTENCE
the commands from higher centers in the brain to the motor neurons, as well as information passed between groups of motor neurons.
nPH prepPH prepPH as well as nPH PARTICIPAL-PH
cerebellum receives somatosensory information directly from spinal afferents as well as from cortico-spinal axons descending from the neocortex
from nPH as well as from nPH
 ------------------------------ ADJ as well as ADJ
Thus language processing is parallel as well as serial; as we shall learn in Chapter 59 ADJ as well as ADJ
Drosophila can produce abnormalities in learned as well as innate behaviors, PARTICIPAL as well as ADJ nPH
Both disciplines recognize the importance of genetic as well as learned factors in determining behavior. ADJ as well as ADJ nPH
The regulatory effects of the various second-messenger systems, including those mediated directly by G proteins as well as those mediated indirectly by second
messengers  postsynaptic membranes shows the active zones with adjacent rows of synaptic vesicles, as well as places where the vesicles are undergoing exocytosis. PARTICIPAL ADV by nPH as well as nPH PARTICIPAL ADV by nPH
------------------------------ nPH as well as nPH prepPH
For a real neuron with extensive dendrites and axons, the input resistance also depends on the membrane resistance of its processes as well as on the intracellular cytoplasmic resistance between the cell body and those processes each of which is a circuit with its own measurable membrane resistance and capacitance as well as an axial resistance within the cytoplasmic core. nPH as well as nPH prepPH ...
(1), as well as to the area behind the action potential (  as well as prepPH
The negative carboxylic acid group, as well as other oxygen atoms that line the pore, can substitute for these waters of hydration Gap junctions are found between glial cells as well as between neurons. nPH, as well as nPH prepPH
in motor neurons (as well as in most other central neurons)  current flow through these channels (chemical driving force) as well as on the conductance of all the other ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane and the batteries for these channels,  serotonin receptors, receptors for neuropeptides, as well as the odorant receptors and rhodopsin  through nPH as well as on nPH   ... nPH, as well as nPH prepPH
Neurons in this area receive information about the position of a stimulus in the world as well as its spatial relationship to the individual's personal space.
nPH prepPH as well as nPH prepPH
Individual movements as well as complex motor actions derive from the patterns of firing of large networks of neurons in the frontal lobe. nPH as well as nPH prepPH
it is possible to distinguish gray and white matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid with high contrast. nPH as well as nPH prepPH
 The rise in intracellular Ca2+ in turn can trigger many biochemical reactions as well as the opening of calcium-activated ion channels in the plasma membrane.
nPH as well as nPH(GERUND) prepPH