Monday, 7 March 2016

An Analysis of Subordinate Conjunction Usage in the English Language

This is an analysis of approx. 400 subordinate conjunction sentences from Kandel's Principles of Neural Science.  At the beginning of each item there is a simple example or two.  Then comes Kandel quotations accompanied with my structural analysis note. 

I intend to reduce these test cases to minimu linearly independent ones and proceed with the translation  software development.

Kind regards.

Ali R+

As it's raining, I'm staying in.
I'm staying in as you should.-->Futbol hokey kadar hızlıdır.
Football is as fast as hockey. --
Football is as much an addiction as a sport. ---->Futbol spor olarak bir bağımlılık kadardır.
As a result, damage to a single area need not result in the loss of an entire faculty as many earlier neurologists predicted. as SENTENCE2
it may partially return as undamaged parts of the brain reorganize their linkages.            as SENTENCE2
The sheath assumes its form as the inner tongue of the Schwann cell turns around the axon         as SENTENCE
As we shall learn below and in Chapter 7,                    as SENTENCE and prepPH
The better, more realistic metaphor is to think of mental processes as several railroad lines that all feed into the same terminal. as nPH THAT SENTENCE
we store each piece of our knowledge of the world as a single representation that can be recalled by memory-jogging stimuli as nPH THAT -SUBJ-SENTENCE
Knowledge is not stored as complete representations but rather is subdivided into distinct categories and stored separately. as nPH but rather -SUBJ-SENTENCE
They imagined each region of the cerebral cortex as an independent mental organ dedicated to a complete and distinct mental function.  as nPH (which is) PARTICIPLE prepPH
As far as is known, glia are not directly involved  as far as is known, SENTENCE
In some cases, as at the nerve-muscle synapse of vertebrates, glial cells actively regulate the properties of the presynaptic terminal.  as prepPH, SENTENCE
hemispheres—was severed as a treatment for epilepsy                  as nPH
but need not interfere permanently with the system as a whole.               as nPH
The intervals between segments of myelin are known as the nodes of Ranvier.            as nPH
The point at which two neurons communicate is known as a synapse.              as nPH
The first of these has become known as the principle of dynamic polarization.           as nPH
Unipolar cells have a single process, with different segments serving as receptive surfaces or releasing terminals.  as nPH or nPH
The CA3 cell dendrites are shown as thin lines and the axon collaterals as thicker lines.   nPH as nPH and nPH as nPH
Thus, it is not useful to represent mental processes as a series of links in a chain, for in such an arrangement   as nph prepPH
which suggests that it may serve as the major antigen presenting cell in the central nervous system.      as nPH prepPH
neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.           such as nPH and nPH
Certain neurons that carry sensory information, such as information about touch or stretch, to the spinal cord    such as nPH prepPH
Representational categories such as “living people” can be subdivided even further.          such as nPH -SUBJ-SENTENCE
The analogy also fails to reflect the cognitive function of the visual system, such as our ability to perceive an object as the same under strikingly
different visual conditions                        such as nPH to-INF nPH as nPH prepPH,
Neurons can be classified as unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar according to the number of processes that originate from the cell body.  as ADJ,ADJ, or ADJ
As a result, identical twins share all genes; they are as alike genetically as is possible for two individuals. as ADJ ADV as -SUBJ-SENTENCE
The branches of a single axon may form synapses with as many as 1000 other neurons.  as ADJ as NUM
with rates perhaps as high as 1 in 500 base pairs,           as ADJ as NUM
micro-tubule can be as long as 0.1 mm.               as ADJ as NUM
This conducting signal can travel at rates as fast as 100 meters per second.   as ADJ as NUM
particles in living axons in culture started as early as 1920.        as ADJ as NUM

AS ... AS
A signal sequence in the nascent polypeptide induces the attachment of the ribosomes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum as soon as
this portion of the nascent polypeptide chain starts protruding from the ribosomes.         as ADJ as SENTENCE
In addition, this local-circuit current does not spread as far as it normally would            as ADJ as SENTENCE
action potentials and, as far as we know, are confounded in the discharge of a single cell.      as ADJ as SENTENCE
 But as soon as he entered, he found                    as ADJ as SENTENCE
The faster component of slow axonal transport is about twice as fast as the slower component.       as ADJ as nPH
The A-type K+ channel is activated rapidly by depolarization, almost as rapidly as the Na+ channel;      as ADJ as nPH
For behaviorists, unobservable mental processes, especially anything as abstract as conscious awareness, was simply deemed inaccessible to scientific study.  AS ADJ AS nPH
A simple electrodiffusion model would predict that the ionic current should continue to increase as long as the ionic concentration also increases: as ADJ as nPH
the mental image of a tomato was as black as its appearance                  as ADJ as nPH
but also in organisms as distantly related as humans and protozoa.              as ADV PARTICIPLE as nPH and nPH
behavior have not been as precisely mapped as sensory, motor, and cognitive functions,          as ADV PARTICIPLE as nPH
the subject is shown three moveable colored balls in an initial position and asked to move them to specified positions with as few movements as possible. as ADJ as ADJ
It is advantageous to respond as rapidly as possible,                  as ADJ as ADJ,
we see a white shirt as white and a red tie as red.                 nPH as ADJ and nPH as ADJ
they see one column of objects as concave and the other as convex              nPH as ADJ and nPH as ADJ
Experimental subjects were instructed to think without vocalization of as many verbs as possible that would correspond to a noun presented to them. as ADJ as ADJ THAT -SUBJ-SENTENCE
But as soon as one microelectrode is inserted into the cell the oscilloscope shows a steady voltage,      but as ADJ as PASS-SENTENCE SENTENCE,
When the hand is rubbed over a set of Braille dots, the Merkel disk receptors and Meissner's  
corpuscles fire bursts of action potentials as each dot in the pattern crosses their receptive fields and are silent as the smooth regions between dots pass. 
                             as SENTENCE and -SUBJ-SENTENCE as SENTENCE
In order that I don't miss the postman, I'm staying in.  in order that SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
the somatosensory areas of the cerebral cortex integrate information from neighboring areas of skin and different populations of receptors in order to form a percept.
                             in order to-INF nPH.
limb amputation was performed under general anesthesia in order to eliminate awareness and memory of the procedure.  in order to-INF nPH and nPH
In the last phase of a trial (discrimination) only two stimuli remain on, and the monkey, in order to obtain a reward,  in order to-INF nPH
In order to perform a task the brain must solve a control problem  In order to-INF nPH article+nPH
Thus reaching and grasping are interesting behaviors to study in order to better understand the process of visuomotor transformation.  in order to ADV -INF nPH
the reflex must be temporarily suppressed in order for the eyes and the head to move simultaneously. in order for nPH and nPH to-INF ADV
In order for the potential across a capacitor to change, the amount of electrical charges stored on the two conducting plates must change first. In order for nPH prepPH to-INF
The reason both alleles need to be defective in a recessive mutation in order for a phenotype to become evident is that a 50% reduction of most proteins usually does not
cause serious (or even detectable) problems in cell function.  in order for nPH to-INF ADJ is that
Since you're going out, I'm staying in.     Since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Since relatively few principles of organization give rise to considerable complexity, it is possible to learn a great deal Since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Since action potentials are conducted without fail along the full length of the axon to the synaptic terminals, the information in the signal is represented only by the
frequency and number of spikes, not by the amplitude.  Since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Since no anatomical defects have been observed with the clock mutation, the clock gene appears  Since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2             
Since each QTL interval contains many genes, additional methods must be used  Since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Since these filamentous polymers are polar, each motor drives its organelle cargo in one direction only. Since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Since opposite charges attract each other, the excess positive charges on the outside and the excess negative charges on the inside collect locally on either surface of the membrane.
Since channels are proteins that span the bilayer of the membrane, we must also take into consideration the capacitive properties of the membrane and the ionic batteries determined by the distribution of Na+ and K+ inside and outside the cell.  Since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Since both duplicated genes are active, the disease results from increased production of PMP22 rather than from a reduction in a mutant protein.  Since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Since each internodal segment is formed by a single Schwann cell, as many as 500 Schwann cells participate in the myelination of a single peripheral sensory axon. Since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Since the capacitive current is essentially instantaneous, the ionic currents that flow through the gated membrane channels can be analyzed separately.
        Since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Since, by convention, the potential outside the cell is defined as zero, the resting potential (Vr) is equal to Vin.  Since, ADV, SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
In contrast, since there are many resting K+ channels, the membrane conductance of K+ is relatively large.   ADV, since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
However, since each unitary current step is tiny relative to the large current carried by many thousands of channels, the random closing of a large number of small unitary currents causes the total end-plate current to appear to decay smoothly (Figure 11-10).   However, since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Thus we again stress vigorously our view, advocated since the first edition of this book, that the future of clinical neurology and psychiatry
depends on the progress of molecular neural science.  PARTICIPAL since nPH, that
in which it cannot know the solution, since the information was projected exclusively to the nondominant hemisphere. ,since SENTENCE
However, a presynaptic cell does not actually touch or communicate anatomically with the postsynaptic cell since the two cells are separated by a space, the synaptic cleft.
                              since SENTENCE, nPH.
and does not depend on the cell body, since it occurs in nerves actually severed from their cell bodies.  SENTENCE1, since SENTENCE2
The larger the neuron, the greater will be its membrane surface area and the lower the input resistance, since there will be more resting channels to conduct ions.
            SENTENCEs, since SENTENCE
and, since the embryo is at the one-cell stage, the incorporated gene is replicated and ends up in all (or nearly all) of the animal's cells, including the germline.
                     , since SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2, and SENTENCE3
The DNA need not be injected directly into a nucleus since the vector used, called a P element, is capable of being incorporated into germ cell nuclei
                SENTENCE1 since nPH, appositional, -SUBJ-SENTENCE.      
This description does not, however, provide any information about changes in the membrane potential in response to a stimulus, since the Goldman equation applies
only to the steady state when the voltage does not change.   SENTENCE1, since SENTENCE2 when SENTENCE3
Even if it rains, I'm going out.
Even if a behavior initially disappears, it may partially return as undamaged parts of the brain reorganize their linkages.  Even if SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Even if genetic factors were necessary but not sufficient for the development of schizophrenia, because environmental factors were also involved, the monozygotic twin of a patient with schizophrenia would still be at significantly higher risk than a dizygotic twin.  Even if SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Thus, even if a given motor neuron is monosynaptically connected to a given CM cell, their firing patterns do not have to parallel each other
  Thus, even if SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
However, if the stimulus temperature exceeds 45°C, warmth fibers fire an intense burst of impulses and then cease firing even if the heat stimulus is maintained.
                             and then VERB GERUND even if SENTENCE
Pressure on the cell's receptive field with a blunt-tipped probe elicits no response even if the skin is indented by 2 mm (A), but the tip of a needle that punctures the skin produces a clear response  VERB nPH even if SENTENCE
At these transitions between sleep and wakefulness patients find themselves unable to move or speak, even if they have awakened.
Few cells respond well to color variations, even if these variations are configured to match the spatial characteristics of the cell's receptive field.  SENTENCE1, even if SENTENCE2
Most patients, however, find their prostheses of great value; even if hearing is not completely restored, the devices help in lip reading and alert patients to noises in the environment.   SENTENCE1; even if SENTENCE2,SENTENCE3 and SENTENCE4
Since any odorant can be recognized by receptors in many regions of the nasal cavity, responsiveness to an odorant is assured, even if part of the epithelium is
damaged, as can occur during respiratory infection or with aging.    SENTENCE1, even if SENTENCE2, as -SUBJ-SENTENCE
Such changes in the kinematic conditions of the muscle fibers alter the force output of the muscle, even if the neural activation of the muscle does not change.
         SENTENCE1, even if SENTENCE2
Studies of adoptees further revealed that some of the blood relatives of adoptees with schizophrenia show odd behavior even if they do not manifest signs of schizophrenia
   that SENTENCE1 even if SENTENCE2        
If it rains, I'm staying in.

If the area of the cortex was critical for language, application of the electrical stimulus blocked the patient's ability to name objects.  If SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
If specific mental processes can be localized to discrete brain regions, what is the relationship between the anatomy and physiology of one region and its specific function in perception, thought, or movement?  If SENTENCE1, QUESTION
if it is large enough, it generates an action potential, if SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
I had thought that if there were ever a phrenological science, it would be the phrenology of convolutions. that if SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
if they are crowded together the sensation is intense, if they are separated by long intervals the sensation is correspondingly feeble.
An action potential is generated only if the input signal is greater than a certain spike threshold. SENTENCE1 only if SENTENCE2
It is here that the activity of all receptor (or synaptic) potentials is summed and where, if the size of the input signal reaches threshold, the neuron fires an action potential.
If there is a common set of neural mechanisms underlying consciousness, then the study of visual attention could put us on the path to a new level of self-understanding.
If head movement is associated with neck or body movement, then the velocity of head movement can be derived from proprioceptive systems of the neck and body.
If the association areas are the ultimate repositories for explicit memory, then damage to association cortex should destroy or impair recall of explicit knowledge that is acquired before the damage.  If SENTENCE1, then SENTENCE2
If a light that has been paired with food is then repeatedly presented in the absence of food, it will gradually cease to evoke salivation.
There, if the receptor potential is sufficiently large, it triggers an action potential, which then propagates actively and without change along the axon to the terminal region.
There, if SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2, which then SENTENCE
But if the points are located in the receptive fields of two different nerve fibers, then information about both points of stimulation will be signaled. 
Provided it doesn't rain, I'm going out.
I'm staying in because it's raining. 
Taken together, these advances form one of the most exciting chapters in the study of human behavior, because they offered the first insight into the biological basis of a complex mental function.  SENTENCE1, because SENTENCE2
maze-learning task used by Lashley is unsuited to the study of local cortical function because the task involves so many motor and sensory capabilities. SENTENCE1, because SENTENCE2
These interictal phenomena are interesting because they represent a true psychiatric syndrome. SENTENCE1, because SENTENCE2
Unipolar neurons are the simplest nerve cells because they have a single primary process, which usually gives rise to many branches. SENTENCE1 because SENTENCE2, which -SUBJ-SENTENCE
Because astrocytes are highly permeable to potassium, they can take up the excess potassium and so protect those neighboring neurons. Because SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Because these endfeet put the astrocyte into contact with both capillaries and neurons, astrocytes are thought to have a nutritive function. Because SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
In contrast, because there are usually five to 10 times more sensory neurons than motor neurons, a single motor cell typically receives input from many sensory cells
In contrast, because SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
I'm staying in so that I don't miss the postman.
Indeed, the excitement evident in neural science today is based on the conviction that at last we have in hand the proper tools to explore the extraordinary organ
of the mind, so that we can eventually fathom the biological principles that underlie human cognition. SENTENCE1, so that SENTENCE2
they leave behind a cloud of unneutralized negativecharge on the inner surface of the membrane, so that the net charge inside the membrane is more negative than on the outside (Figure 2-9).  SENTENCE1, so that SENTENCE2
The branches project radially, so that the entire dendritic structure of a single motor neuron can extend within the spinal cord over an area about 2 to 3 mm in diameter.
Therefore, the movement of Cl- ions tends toward equilibrium across the membrane, so that ECl is equal to the resting potential, Vr, and there is no net Cl- flux at rest.
which in turn convey commands to the extensor muscles to contract so that balance will be restored. SENTENCE1 so that SENTENCE2
Cloned DNA from the mouse gene to be mutated is modified by genetic engineering so that it contains a bacterial gene, neo. SENTENCE1 so that SENTENCE2
I'm staying in although I'd rather go out.
The name for these cells derives from the Greek for glue, although in actuality glia do not commonly hold nerve cells together. SENTENCE1, although SENTENCE2
Other glial cells apparently release growth factors and otherwise help nourish nerve cells, although this role has been difficult to demonstrate conclusively.
Although neurons vary in shape and function, the operation of most follows this rule of information flow. Although SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Although DNA replication generally is carried out with high fidelity, spontaneous errors called mutations do occur. Although SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Although the emotional aspects of behavior have not been as precisely mapped as sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, distinct emotions can be elicited by stimulating specific parts of the brain in humans or experimental animals. Although SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Second, although the hemispheres are similar in appearance, they are not completely symmetrical in structure nor equivalent in function. ADV, although SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Although the human brain contains an extraordinary number of these cells (on the order of 1011 neurons), which can be classified into at least a thousand different types, all nerve cells share the same basic architecture. Although SENTENCE1, which -SUBJ-SENTENCE, SENTENCE2
  I'm staying in even though the sun is out.
Even though the major subcompartments of this system are anatomically discontinuous, membranous and lumenal material are moved from one compartment to another with great efficiency and specificity by means of transport vesicles.  Even though SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Even though the thickness of myelin makes the capacitance of the axon quite small, the amount of current flowing down the core of the axon from the trigger zone is not enough to discharge the capacitance along the entire length of the myelinated axon.  Even though SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Even though neurons in these areas respond selectively to an array of inputs and are able to signal more complex aspects of the visual image, the information they process is entirely visual.  Even though SENTENCE1 and -SUBJ-SENTENCE2, SENTENCE3
Surprisingly, the GABA and glycine receptors are structurally related to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, even though the channels select for different ions.
SENTENCE1, even though SENTENCE2
Such patients are unable to “see” all the parts of an object, even though the visual pathways are intact.  SENTENCE1, even though SENTENCE2
people who express the marker will likely also express the disease—even though the marker may have nothing to do with the disease. SENTENCE1-even though SENTENCE2
These signals are highly stereotyped throughout the nervous system, even though they are initiated by a great variety of events in the environment that impinge on our bodies—from light to mechanical contact, from odorants to pressure waves.  SENTENCE1, even though SENTENCE2 that -SUBJ-SENTENCE3, prepPH prepPH
In the most extreme cases, patients cannot even comprehend that their left limbs are paralyzed and will deny that they are ill, even though they cannot sit up in bed unaided.
  I'm staying in just as you should.
Thus, at the peak of the action potential the membrane potential approaches the Na+ equilibrium potential, just as at rest (when permeability to K+ is predominant) the membrane potential tends to approach the K+ equilibrium potential. SENTENCE1, just as ADV SENTENCE2
The interaction of these cascades provides a molecular means by which neurons may integrate the biochemical signals initiated by their synaptic actions just as the
initial segment of a neuron provides a site for integration of electrical signals SENTENCE1 just as SENTENCE2
The neuro-muscular junction can thus be frozen just as the action potential invades the terminal and exocytosis occurs. SENTENCE1 just as SENTENCE2
The afferent pathways adjacent to the area normally occupied by afferents from the hand expands into the latter area, just as they do in monkeys with deafferented limbs.
However, they neglect the left half of the remembered space, just as they neglect the left half of the visual field in reality, because
Both the magnocellular and parvocellular layers include on- and off-center cells, just as there are on- and off-center ganglion cells in the retina.
Many cells in V2 responded to the illusory contours just as they responded to edges (Figure 28-16). SENTENCE1, just as ADV SENTENCE2
Just as many contemporary ideas about the dynamic  mechanisms underlying the development of connectivity in the nervous system were anticipated a century ago by Ramón y Cajal on the basis of Golgi images of neurons in histological specimens, we predict that much of our understanding of higher brain function will depend on refined mapping of neuronal circuits.
Just as the motion information processed in MT is used both for the visual guidance of movement and for visual perception, disparity-sensitive cells in different
regions of visual cortex may use disparity information for different purposes.  Just as SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
That is, just as individual cones confuse variations in wavelength and intensity, so too do individual P cells. ADV, just as SENTENCE1, so SENTENCE2
but does so by increasing the response criterion rather than decreasing stimulus detectability—the stimulus is just as painful but the subject is more tolerant.
SUBJ BeVERB just as ADJ  (preposition)
I'm staying in though I wish I weren't.
suggesting a significant, though not necessarily predominant, genetic influence on those traits. SENTENCE1 article ADJ, though ADV ADJ, nPH prepPH
It caused a sort of dreaminess in which there was no sense of pain nor feeling of terror, though quite conscious of all that was happening. SENTENCE1, though ADV ADJ ...
we could do better still, though each additional curve would contribute progressively less information about the structure of the full reflectance function.
Anatomical considerations suggest these happen in bipolar cells, though this has not yet been established physiologically. SENTENCE1, though SENTENCE2
Though the sentence The child seems to be sleepy can be shortened to The child seems sleepy, the nearly identical sentence The child seems to be sleeping cannot be shortened to The child seems sleeping. Though SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Though this explanation of depression seems fanciful today, the underlying view that psychological disorders reflect physical processes is correct. Though SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
These signals are highly stereotyped throughout the nervous system, even though they are initiated by a great variety of events in the environment that impinge on our bodies—from light to mechanical contact, from odorants to pressure waves. SENTENCE1, even though SENTENCE2
So far we have ignored the contribution of chloride (Cl-) to the resting potential, even though many nerve cells have Cl- channels that are open in the resting membrane.
SENTENCE1, even though SENTENCE2
Even though the thickness of myelin makes the capacitance of the axon quite small, the amount of current flowing down the core of the axon from the trigger zone is not enough to discharge the capacitance along the entire length of the myelinated axon. Even though SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Even though the major subcompartments of this system are anatomically discontinuous, membranous and lumenal material are moved from one compartment to another with great efficiency and specificity by means of transport vesicles. Even though SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2

Even when they are eliminated, the organism has no other major defects.  Even when SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2.
Even after the anatomists Jacob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann put forward the cell theory in the early 1830s—when the idea that cells are the structural units of all living matter became a central dogma of biology—most anatomists would not accept that the cell theory applied to the brain, which they thought of as a continuous web-like reticulum.
Even the most stereotypic behaviors of simple animals can be influenced by the environment, while highly evolved behaviors in humans, such as language, are constrained by hereditary factors. Even nPH
there is no cytoplasmic continuity between neurons, even at the synapse between two cells. SENTENCE1, even prepPH prepPH.
As we have seen, even in the knee-jerk reflex, the sensory neurons make both excitatory connections and connections through inhibitory interneurons.
Some diseases are selective even within the neuron, affecting only the receptive elements, the cell body, or the axon. SENTENCE1 even prepPH
In worms, flies, and even in vertebrate organisms such as mice and zebrafish, it is possible to examine. , and even prepPH
Subsequent connections diverge even more. SENTENCE even ADV.
This influx of positively charged Na+ ions tends to neutralize the negative charge inside the cell and results in an even greater reduction in membrane potential— the action potential.
As we have seen, and will learn to appreciate even more in later chapters, the message of an action potential is determined by the neural pathway that carries it.
SENTENCE1 even ADV ...
Even cells with similar organization can differ in important molecular details, expressing different combinations of ion channels, for example. Even nPH
But even the stretch reflex involves populations of neurons— perhaps a few hundred sensory neurons and a hundred motor neurons.
But even nPH
Long-term changes (lasting days) can give rise to further physiological changes that lead to anatomical changes, including pruning of preexisting connections, and even growth of new connections.
, and even nPH.
Single genes can even account for differences in normal social behavior. nPH aux-VERB even VERB
I'm staying in whereas you are going out.
Whereas Broca's patients could understand language but not speak, Wernicke's patient could speak but could not understand language. Whereas SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Whereas destructive lesions bring about loss of function, often through the disconnection of specialized areas, the electrical storm of epilepsy can increase activity in the regions affected, leading to excessive expression of emotion or over-elaboration of ideas. Whereas SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Whereas the axon is the output element of the neuron, the dendrites (apical and basal) are input elements of the neuron. Whereas SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Phrenologists argued that the cortex was a mosaic of functionally specific areas, whereas the aggregate-field school argued that mental functions were distributed homogeneously throughout the cerebral cortex. SENTENCE1, whereas SENTENCE2
At each of these polymorphic sites, an individual will carry at most two different forms of the same allele, whereas the same allele may exist in many forms within a population.
A spermatozoon carries either an X (femaledetermining) or a Y (male-determining) chromosome, whereas an ovum carries only an X chromosome. SENTENCE1, whereas SENTENCE2
The phenotype of an individual may change throughout life, whereas the genotype remains constant except for sporadic mutations. SENTENCE1, whereas SENTENCE2
Rovers follow longer foraging paths, whereas sitters use much smaller paths. SENTENCE1, whereas SENTENCE2
More than 50 percent of the social foragers are found in groups, whereas less than two percent of the solitary foragers are found in groups. SENTENCE1, whereas SENTENCE2
  I'm staying in in case it rains.
recovery of function in cases of injury.
I'm going out unless it rains.
The signal does not reach beyond the axon's initial segment unless it gives rise to an action potential. SENTENCE1 unless SENTENCE2
TIM protein, on the other hand, cannot enter the nucleus unless it is bound to PER protein. SENTENCE1 unless SENTENCE2
this would lead to rapid catastrophic depolymerization unless the microtubule were stabilized by interaction with other proteins. SENTENCE1 unless SENTENCE2
many neurobiologists believe that a substance should not be accepted as a neurotransmitter unless the following four criteria are met: SENTENCE1 unless SENTENCE2
The dual functions of the limbic association area, notably those of emotional expression and memory formation, may seem disparate unless one realizes that the
emotional impact of an event is an important determinant of whether the event is remembered. SENTENCE1 unless SENTENCE2
Such a dissociation could not occur unless there were separate processes for wavelength discrimination and color construction. SENTENCE1 unless SENTENCE2
Unless and until the cysts significantly enlarge, discriminative touch and position sense are usually spared. Unless SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Unless observed by a bed partner, the frequent apnea is often not known to the patient, and it is the snoring or excessive sleepiness that  Unless SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
brings medical attention.
Unless it is extreme, arousal enhances intellectual and physical performance Unless SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
I fish where the waves start to form.
This papyrus, written in the seventeenth century B.C., contains the earliest reference to the brain anywhere in human records. anywhere prepPH
and pain elsewhere in body     elsewhere prepPH
With lesions of the putamen the eyes are usually deviated ipsilaterally , whereas with thalamic hemorrhage the eyes
tend to be deviated downward and those encountered elsewhere in the body.   elsewhere prepPH
the critical cortical lesion was located in the posterior part of the temporal lobe where it joins the parietal and occipital lobes SENTENCE1 where SENTENCE2
this representation is conveyed to Wernicke's area, where it is recognized as language and associated with meaning. SENTENCE1, where SENTENCE2
is then conveyed to Wernicke's area, where it becomes associated with meaning before being transformed in Broca's area into output as spoken language. SENTENCE1, where SENTENCE2
It contains the nucleus, which stores the genes of the cell, as well as the endoplasmic reticulum, an extension of the nucleus where the cell's proteins are synthesized.
The action potential is conducted down the cell's axon to the axon's terminals which end on other cells (neurons or muscle), where the action potential initiates communication with the other cells. SENTENCE1, where SENTENCE2
the axon, where, if it is large enough, it generates an action potential, SENTENCE1, where SENTENCE2
the highest density occurs at the axon hillock, where the axon emerges from the cell body. SENTENCE1, where SENTENCE2
The synaptic potential then spreads passively to the trigger zone of the motor neuron axon, where it initiates an action potential that propagates actively to the terminal of the motor neuron. SENTENCE1, where SENTENCE2
Where along the length of the channel do drugs and transmitters bind? Where QUESTION
Where in the molecule is the binding site located? How is the pore formed? Where QUESTION
I will live wherever the weather is good.   
I'm going out after the football.   
Disillusioned, Lashley—and, after him, many other psychologists —concluded that learning and other mental functions have no special locus in the brain
who lost their ability to speak American Sign Language after suffering cerebral damage. after OBL-PRON
After all, to study the relationship between a mental process and specific After OBL-PRON
to accommodate extra traffic after the breakdown of a line. after nPH
Some glial cells are scavengers, removing debris after injury or neuronal death. after nPH
Microglia are phagocytes that are mobilized after injury, infection, or disease. after nPH
zygote that splits into two soon after fertilization. after nPH
After dusk, when the levels of TIM and PER increase, the two proteins bind to one another, After nPH
20 years after the onset of symptoms. after nPH
Proteins destined for the endoplasmic reticulum are formed after the polysomes attach to the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). after nPH
Thus, unlike nuclear proteins, which are imported after they have been folded, these polypeptides reach their native conformation
only after import into the target organelle, which occurs soon after the protein is synthesized. after nPH
This modification occurs soon after synthesis and transport through the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. soon after nPH
After exocytosis the membrane added through fusion is retrieved through endocytosis. After nPH
After several seconds of stimulation the presynaptic neuron is returned to the control rate of firing (1 per second). After nPH SENTENCE1
or by autoradiographically tracing labeled protein soon after administering radioactively labeled amino acids, certain labeled sugars soon after GERUND-PH
Shortly after polymerization GTP is hydrolyzed to GDP. after GERUND
After processing, new synaptic vesicles bud off the endosome, completing the recycling process. After GERUND,
Typically, an action potential lasts about one millisecond, after which the membrane returns to its resting state, after which
After the transmitter is released from the presynaptic neuron, it diffuses across the synaptic cleft to receptors in the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron.
After it is released, glutamate (and other transmitters) is taken up from the synaptic cleft by both neurons and glia, as we shall see later in this chapter.
C. After injection of 2 mg neostigmine into the brachial artery of the myasthenic patient, the decrease in amplitude was partially reversed.  After SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
C. After the voltage-gated Na+ channels of the action potential have been blocked, tetraethylammonium (TEA) is injected into the presynaptic terminal to block the
voltage-gated K+ channels as well.  After PASSIVE-SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
B. After many end-plate potentials were recorded, the number of responses at each amplitude was counted and then plotted in the histogram shown here. The
distribution of responses falls into a number of peaks. After PASSIVE-SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
After obtaining a population of ES cells with a high proportion carrying the marker, the cells are then injected into a recipient blastocyst. After GERUND-PH,
failed to eat or drink, and died shortly thereafter. ADV thereafter
A cell body in the magnocellular nucleus of the basal forebrain was found to be labeled two days after injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the cortex.
NUM nPH after nPH prepPH
first by René Descartes and then by John Locke,   then by PN
This information is then conveyed to a cortical association area specialized for both visual and auditory information, NOM-PRON BE-VERB then VERB
The common neural representation is then relayed from Wernicke's to Broca's area, BE-VERB then VERB
This information, he thought, is then conveyed to Wernicke's area, BE-VERB then VERB
 Through a variety of experimental methods, such images of the brain can be made while subjects are engaged in specific tasks, which then can be related to the activities of discrete regions of the brain. ,which then -SUBJ-SENTENCE

The continuous stream of information from these receptors is organized by the brain into perceptions and then into appropriate behavioral responses. and then prepPH

This outgrowth then splits into two processes, both of which function as axons, one going to peripheral skin or muscle, the other going to the central spinal cord.
nPH then VERB
The axon then splits into two; one branch runs to the periphery, the other to the spinal cord if it is large enough, it generates an action potential, which then propagates without failure nPH then VERB
We then examine how individual cells organize and transmit signals and how signaling between a few interconnected nerve cells produces a simple behavior, the knee jerk reflex.
Then I fell asleep again. Then SENTENCE.
Then the Ringer solution that had been in the first heart during the stimulation of the vagus was transferred to the second heart. Then SENTENCE
Then, through a process of homeogenetic induction, a process by which like begets like, these signals are transferred to specialized glial cells at the midline of the neural tube (the roof plate dorsally and the floor plate ventrally). Then, prepPH, SENTENCE
Then, within the target, different retinal axons project to different subregions. Then, prepPH, SENTENCE
Then six other stimuli came on, one of which fell into the receptive field of the cell (stimulus presentation). Then SENTENCE1, which CLAUSE
Then, as the shoulders and the hip begin to move, it moves back under the supporting leg to maintain the new posture. Then, as SENTENCE
  I'm going out as soon as the football has finished.
A signal sequence in the nascent polypeptide induces the attachment of the ribosomes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum as soon as this portion of the nascent polypeptide chain starts protruding from the ribosomes. SENTENCE1 as soon as SENTENCE2
As soon as the membrane potential begins to depolarize from the value of the K+ equilibrium potential, K+ flux is no longer in equilibrium across the membrane. As soon as SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
But as soon as one microelectrode is inserted into the cell the oscilloscope shows a steady voltage, the resting membrane potential. But as soon as SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
But as soon as he entered, he found his entire studio, which was hung with brilliantly colored paintings…  But as soon as SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Motor unit 2 starts firing only near the peak of the voluntary contraction and turns off as soon as the force declines. SENTENCE1 and VERB as soon as SENTENCE2
The subject stands on a firm platform and pulls on a fixed handle as soon as possible after an auditory cue. SENTENCE1 and -SUBJ-SENTENCE2 as soon as ADJ after nPH
  I'm staying out as long as the weather stays good.
single micro-tubule can be as long as 0.1 mm. as long as NUM
According to Equation 8-1 the voltage across a capacitor continues to increase with time as long as a current pulse is applied.  SENTENCE1 as long as SENTENCE2
they remain open as long as the membrane is depolarized SENTENCE1 as long as SENTENCE2
can be achieved with different degrees of coactivation of the antagonist muscles, as long as their torques are equal and opposite. SENTENCE1, as long as SENTENCE2
I'm going out before the football.
Before the invention of the compound microscope in the eighteenth century, nervous tissue was thought to function like a gland
Before we consider the relevant clinical and anatomical studies concerned with the localization of language, let us briefly look at the overall structure of the brain.
where it becomes associated with meaning before being transformed in Broca's area into output as spoken language.
Must the neural code for a word that is read be translated into an auditory representation before it can be associated with a meaning?
They often do things for thrills, as opposed to thinking things through before coming to a decision.
In the development of the peripheral nervous system, before myelination takes place, the sensory cell axon lies along a peripheral nerve in a trough formed by a class
of glia called Schwann cells.
Thus, in assembly-line fashion, the proteins undergo stepwise changes before leaving the Golgi complex at its trans side
I'm going out once the football has finished.
We are especially indebted to John H. Martin for helping us, once again, with the anatomical drawings. ,once again,
At the new resting potential, the outward K+ current and inward Na+ current are once again in balance. BE-VERB once again prepPH.
The GABA-gated channel is the target for three types of drugs that are at once clinically important and socially abused: the benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol.
Once the input signal surpasses this threshold, any further increase in amplitude of the input signal increases the frequency with which the action
potentials are generated, not their amplitude. Once SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Once the transition between open and closed states begins, it proceeds virtually instantaneously Once SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Once a structure for a channel has been proposed, it can be tested in several ways. Once SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
Thus, once a channel opens it stays open for a few milliseconds before closing Thus, once SENTENCE1 SENTENCE2
and what to do with genes once thay are found. SENTENCE1 once PASSIVE-SENTENCE
The coats are rapidly lost once free vesicles have formed. SENTENCE1 once SENTENCE2
preventing vesicles from leaving the active zone once they arrive. GERUND-PH once SENTENCE2  
I'm staying out till the weather turns bad.
I'm staying out until the weather turns bad.
Even so, nervous tissue did not become the subject of a special science until the late 1800s  until nPH
Until recently, almost everything we knew about the anatomical organization of language came from studies of patients who had suffered brain lesions. Until ADV,
but it is by no means completely determined until the age of about seven or eight. until nPH
The PER protein cannot accumulate until sufficient TIM protein is present to bind to and stabilize it. SENTENCE1 until SENTENCE2
Binding thus cannot occur until the two proteins reach higher levels, causing a delay in the entry of the PER-TIM complex into the nucleus and thus extending the period of each cycle.
that was not manifested until age 60, until nPH
Until 1980 polymorphisms could only be detected by differences in the behavior of the protein, Until NUM
each of which has been inbred until all members of the group are genetically identical and have two uniform sets of chromosomes. SENTENCE1 until SENTENCE2
Translation of mRNA into protein starts from the 5? end of the mRNA, which encodes the N-terminal end of the protein, and progresses codon by codon until the molecule is finished.
This binding prevents folding until appropriate regions of the protein become available to permit proper folding. SENTENCE1 until SENTENCE2
Until recently proteolysis was thought to be primarily directed to poorly folded, denatured, or aged proteins. Until ADV
which continues until the cell has repolarized to its resting membrane potential. which VERB until SENTENCE
The hormone released by the gland travels through the blood stream until it interacts with all cells that contain an appropriate receptor. SENTENCE1 until SENTENCE2
I'm going out when the weather improves.   
I go out whenever the weather is good.
Whenever there is a net flow of cations or anions into or out of the cell, the charge separation across the resting membrane is disturbed, altering the polarization of the membrane.
Whenever there is a net flow of cations or anions into or out of the cell, the charge separation across the resting membrane is disturbed, altering the polarization of the membrane.
Whenever we step from a dark environment into bright daylight the light is blinding at first, but over a period of several seconds the eyes adapt. Whenever SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
On the one hand, the rapid technical improvement in cochlear prostheses leads their developers to advocate use of the devices whenever practical, including for young children.
Angular acceleration occurs whenever an object alters its rate of rotation about an axis. SENTENCE1 whenever SENTENCE2
With this information the animal is likely to take the appropriate action whenever it is hungry. SENTENCE1 whenever SENTENCE2
A potential difference exists within a system whenever positive and negative charges are separated. SENTENCE1 whenever SENTENCE2
Blur is the stimulus that induces accommodation; whenever accommodation occurs, the eyes also converge. ; whenever SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
From Ohm's law, whenever the resting conductance, gl, decreases, less excitatory current will be needed to depolarize a cell to threshold.  , whenever SENTENCE1, PASSIVE-SENTENCE2
I'll stay out while the weather is good. 
I'm staying in while you are going out.  
While these philosophers provided quite specific descriptions of consciousness, they were not concerned with explaining the way in which it worked. Whie SENTENCE1, SENTENCE2
While studying posture and locomotion, Sherrington observed a decrease in the intensity of certain reflexes, such as the withdrawal of a limb, in response to repeated stimulation.
After ECT, however, the patients showed a significant but transitory loss of memory for more recent programs, while their recall of older programs remained essentially the same as it was before ECT. SENTENCE1 while SENTENCE2
For example, one cell will fire only when the animal's head enters a particular area in the north end of the space, while other cells will fire when the animal takes other positions at the south end of that space SENTENCE1, while SENTENCE2
In this study, positron emission tomography (PET) is used to examine the neural substrates of topographical memory retrieval by licensed London taxi drivers with many years' experience while they recalled complex routes around the city. SENTENCE1 while sentence2
Resistances in series add, while resistances in parallel add reciprocally. SENTENCE1 while sentence2
Through a variety of experimental methods, such images of the brain can be made while subjects are engaged in specific tasks, which then can be related to the activities of discrete regions of the brain. SENTENCE1 while sentence2
The crests of these convolutions are called gyri, while the intervening grooves are called sulci or fissures. SENTENCE1 while sentence2
Patients were asked to name objects or use language in other ways while different areas of the cortex were stimulated. SENTENCE1 while sentence2